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Full text of "NYC ZONING (2008): New York City Zoning Code"

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The City of New York 

Michael R. Bloomberg, Mayor 

Department of City Planning 

Amanda M. Burden, faicp. Director 



22 Reade Street 

NewYork, NY 10007-1216 

www.nyc.gov/planning 



2011 Edition 



The Zoning Handbook provides a brief overview of the zoning rules and regulations of New York City and is not 
intended to serve as a substitute for the actual regulations which are to be found in the Zoning Resolution of the 
City of New York, available in print and also online at www.nyc.gov/planning. The City disclaims any liability 
for errors that maybe contained herein and shall not be responsible for any damages, consequential or actual, arising 
out of or in connection with the use of this information. 



©1990, 2006, 2011. New York City Department of City Planning. 
All rights reserved. 



Contents 



Preface 

Chapter 1 Introduction 1 

Chapter 2 New York City Zoning Districts 5 

Chapter 3 Residence Districts 6 

Rl 10 

R2 11 

R3 14 

R4 18 

R5 23 

R6 28 

R7 32 

R8 38 

R9 43 

RIO 47 

Chapter 4 Commercial Districts 53 

CI, C2 54 

C3 58 

C4 60 

C5 62 

C6 64 

C7 66 

C8 67 

Chapter 5 Manufacturing Districts 69 

Ml 70 

M2 72 

M3 73 

Chapter 6 Special Purpose Districts 75 

Chapter 7 Use Groups 91 

Chapter 8 Signs 93 

Chapter 9 Community Facilities 95 

Chapter 10 Off-Street Parking '^'^ 

Chapter 11 Zoning Tools 103 

Large-Scale Development 103 

Streetscape Improvements 104 

Waterfront Zoning 106 

Privately Owned Public Space 1 10 

FRESH Food Stores 112 

Lower Density Growth Management Areas 1 14 

Inclusionary Housing Program H 7 

Appendix A Zoning Analyses 119 

Appendix B How Zoning is Amended and Enforced 127 

Appendix C Guide to the NYC Zoning Resolution 129 

How to Use the Zoning Resolution 1 31 

How to Read Zoning Maps 1 32 

Appendix D Guide to the DCP Website 133 

Appendix E Zoning Data Tables 1 35 

Glossary of Planning Terms 142 



Preface 

New York City is a global city, whose bedrock is the strong character and diversity of its neighbor- 
hoods. The Zoning Resolution reflects this complexity and presents a framework for development 
that builds on the unique qualities of each of those neighborhoods. Zoning is the language of the 
physical city; it is a three-dimensional blueprint for what any area of the city can become. 

For the last eight years, zoning has been an instrumental tool in helping us ensure the sustainable 
growth of New York City by encouraging development in areas well-served by mass transit. 
We have continued to fine-tune the Zoning Resolution to make it more versatile and responsive, 
to better address issues of neighborhood character and social equity as well as to help promote 
investment in the city's future. 

We have expanded our 'zoning toolbox' by adding new zoning districts tailored to individual 
communities and have endeavored to improve the public realm by creating new design guidelines 
for waterfront public access and public plazas to guarantee that they are inviting and well used. 
Underlying all of City Planning's efforts has been a focus on the human scale of the city, and we 
have tried to achieve this through the integration of urban design with zoning. 

The Zoning Handbook has been designed to be readable, entertaining and informative. Annotated 
diagrams, photographs and easily understandable charts help demystify the Zoning Resolution. 
This 2011 edition has been expanded to include City Planning's latest zoning districts and text 
amendments. While it will continue to be a significant tool for all New Yorkers, not just land use 
specialists and zoning experts, this Handbook should not be used as a substitute for the Zoning 
Resolution which is available online for free at www.nyc.gov/planning. 

The Handbook is intended to make zoning more accessible to all, and to help New Yorkers advocate 
for their neighborhoods. Planning initiatives are most successful when there is full participation by 
residents, elected officials and other stakeholders. We hope that this new edition will facilitate that 
involvement and encourage a robust engagement by all those involved in the public land use process. 




Amanda M. Burden, FAICP, Director 

New York City Department of City Planning 

January 2011 



Chapter 1 

Introduction 



Zoning shapes the city. Compared with 
architecture and planning, zoning has a 
relatively short history as a means of orga- 
nizing the way land is used. Yet zoning determines 
the size and use of buildings, where they are located 
and, in large measure, the density of the city's 
diverse neighborhoods. Along with the city's power 
to budget, tax, and condemn property, zoning is a 
key tool for carrying out planning policy. New York 
City has been a pioneer in the field of zoning since 
it enacted the nation's first comprehensive zoning 
ordinance in 1916. 

TKE 1916 ZONING RiSOLUTION 

As early as the 1870's and 1880's, New Yorkers 
began to protest the loss of light and air as taller 
residential buildings began to appear in Manhattan. 
In response, the state legislature enacted a series of 
height restrictions on residential buildings, culmi- 
nating in the Tenement House Act of 1901. 
By then. New York City had become the financial 
center of the country and expanding businesses 
needed office space. With the introduction of steel 
frame construction techniques and improved eleva- 
tors, technical restraints that had limited building 
height vanished. The Manhattan skyline was begin- 
ning to assume its distinctive form. 
In 1915, when the 42-story Equitable Building was 
erected in Lower Manhattan, the need for controls 
on the height and form of all buildings became 
clear. Rising without setbacks to its full height of 
538 feet, the Equitable Building cast a seven-acre 
shadow over neighboring buildings, affecting their 
value and setting the stage for the nation's first 
comprehensive zoning resolution. 







Equitable Buil i 



Other forces were also 
at work during the 
same period. Housing 
shortages, caused by an 
influx of new immi- 
grants, created a mar- 
ket for tenements built 
to maximum bulk and 
minimum standards. 
Warehouses and facto- 
ries began to encroach 
upon the fashionable 

stores along Ladies' Mile, edging uncomfortably 
close to Fifth Avenue. Intrusions like these and the 
impacts of rapid growth added urgency to the calls 
of reformers for zoning restrictions separating resi- 
dential, commercial and manufacturing uses and for 
new and more effective height and setback controls 
for all uses. 

The concept of enacting a set of laws to govern land 
use and bulk was revolutionary, but the time had 
come for the city to regulate its surging physical 
growth. The groundbreaking Zoning Resolution of 
1916, though a relatively simple document, estab- 
Ushed height and setback controls and designated 
residential districts that excluded what were seen as 
incompatible uses. It fostered the iconic tall, slender 
towers that came to epitomize the city's business 
districts and established the familiar scale of three- 
to six-story residential buildings found in much of 
the city. The new ordinance became a model for 
urban communities throughout the United States as 
other growing cities found that New York's prob- 
lems were not unique. 

But, while other cities were adopting the New York 
model, the model itself refused to stand still. The 




Zoning Resolution was 
frequently amended to 
be responsive to major 
shifts in population 
and land use caused 
by a variety of fac- 
tors: continuing waves 
of immigration that 
helped to swell the 
city's population from 
five million in 1916 to 

Empire state Building, 19i1 

over eight million in 
2010; new mass transit routes and the growth cor- 
ridors they created; the emergence of technology 
and consequent economic and lifestyle changes; the 
introduction of government housing and develop- 
ment programs; and, perhaps more than anything 
else, the increase in automobile usage, which revo- 
lutionized land use patterns and created traffic and 
parking problems never imagined in 1916. 

THE 1961 ZONING RESOLUTION 

By mid-century, many of the underlying planning 
principles of the 1916 docuinent no longer stood 
the test of time. If, for example, the city had been 
built out at the density envisioned in 1916, it could 
have contained over 55 million people, far beyond 
its realistic capacity. New theories were capturing 
the imaginations of planners. Le Corbusier's "tower- 
in-the-park" model was influencing urban designers 
of the time and the concept of incentive zoning — 
trading additional floor area for public amenities- 
began to take hold. The last, still vacant areas on the 
city's edges needed to be developed at densities that 
recognized the new, automobile-oriented lifestyle. 
Also, demands to make zoning approvals simpler, 
swifter and more comprehensible were a constant. 

Eventually it was evident that the original 1916 frame- 
work needed to be completely reconsidered. After 




lengthy study and public debate, the current Zoning 
Resolution was enacted and took effect in 1961. 

The 1961 Zoning Resolution was a product of its time. 
It coordinated use and bulk regulations, incorporated 
parking requirements and emphasized the creation of 
open space. It intro- 
duced incentive zon- 
ing by adding a bonus 
of extra floor space 
to encourage devel- 
opers of office build- 
ings and apartment 
towers to incorpo- 
rate plazas into their 
projects. In the city's 

business districts, Lever House, 1952 

it accommodated a new type of high-rise office 
building with large, open floors of a consistent size. 
Elsewhere in the city, the 1961 Zoning Resolution 
dramatically reduced residential densities, largely at 
the edges of the city. 

Although based upon the leading planning theories 
of the day, aspects of those zoning policies have 
revealed certain shortcomings over the years. The 
emphasis on open space sometimes resulted in build- 
ings that overwhelm their surroundings, and the 
open spaces created by incentive zoning provisions 
have not always been useful or attractive. Urban 
design theories have changed as well. Today, tower- 
in-the-park developments, set back far from the city 
street, are often viewed as isolating and contrary to 
the goal of creating a vibrant urban streetscape. 

Time passes, land uses change, and zoning policy 
accommodates, anticipates and guides those 
changes. In a certain sense, zoning is never final; 
it is renewed constantly in response to new ideas— 
and to new challenges. 



ZONING TODAY 

Since the passage of the 1961 zoning ordinance, 
new approaches have been continually developed to 
deal with issues and opportunities that emerge as 
New York City grows and changes. A combination 
of incentive zoning, contextual zoning and special 
district techniques have been used to make zoning 
a more responsive and sensitive planning tool. 

Today's zoning has been designed to reshape the 
city by embodying smart growth and sustainable 
principles while addressing a range of goals as 
diverse as New York City's neighborhoods. Over 
the past nine years, over 9,400 blocks — equal to 
roughly one-fifth of the city — have been rezoned. 
Increases in density are found in transit-oriented 
locations within walkable communities that offer 
a variety of retail, service, community facility and 
employment destinations that can be comfortably 
reached without having to use an automobile. In a 
city where housing is always in short supply, new 
opportunities for housing development, market- 
rate and affordable, have been created in former 
industrial areas and in established neighborhoods 
with good transit connections that can sustain 
increased density. Contextual zoning districts have 
been refined and expanded to better preserve the 
character of the city's neighborhoods. In the outly- 
ing and more auto-dependent lower-density areas 
distant from mass transit, new growth management 
techniques have been developed to better address 
issues arising from rapid growth. 

The Zoning Resolution has been revised to achieve 
planning objectives across neighborhoods through- 
out the city. Affordable housing incentives have been 
made more widely applicable, and mixed use zoning 
has been used to help create vibrant, active neighbor- 
hoods, particularly in areas where residential uses 



were previously prohibited. Special incentives have 
been created to promote fresh food stores in under- 
served areas, and a range of zoning amendments 
have been adopted to ensure a more sustainable city 
through requirements for bicycle parking, manda- 
tory street trees, improved streetscapes with more 
green space in front yards, and landscaping in park- 
ing lots. New rules have also been adopted to assure 
a more open, accessible and inviting waterfront. 

Zoning has also been used to implement com- 
prehensive plans to catalyze investment and 
economic opportunity in critical areas of the city. 
New employment opportunities have been created 
through the Hudson Yards rezoning on Manhattan's 
Far West Side, which established the foundation 
for expansion of the Manhattan central business 
district. Downtown Brooklyn, Long Island City and 
Downtown Jamaica in Queens are business districts 
that have been strengthened by including residential 
uses and urban design guidehnes. Special zoning has 
been used to preserve the High Line in West Chelsea 
and create a remarkable new park, to help ensure the 
revitalization of the iconic Coney Island for future 
generations, and to strengthen Harlem's 125"' Street 
by building on its rich cultural legacy. 
The Zoning Resolution is a blueprint for the devel- 
opment of the city. It is flexible enough to address 
the advances in technology, neighborhood transfor- 
mations, changing land use patterns and emerging 
design philosophies that combine to make New 
York one of the great cities of the world. New York 
City is recognized for its iconic landmarks, but it 
is also at the forefront of continual reinvention and 
architectural exploration. There is no doubt that 
the Resolution will continue to change and evolve 
as we confront new challenges and shape the city to 
ensure a better future for all New Yorkers. 
Cities never stand still, nor should zoning. 




NYC Zoning Districts 




Lower-Density Residence Districts (R1-R5) 

Medium- and Higher-Density Residence Districts (R6-R10) 

Commercial Districts 



Manufacturing Districts 
Mixed Use Districts 
Parkland 



Chapter 2 



New York City Zoning Districts 



New York City's Zoning Resolution has 
two parts: zoning text and zoning maps. 
The text estabhshes zoning districts and 
sets forth regulations governing their land use and 
development. The maps show the locations and 
boundaries of the zoning districts. (See Appendix 
C, Guide to the NYC Zoning Resolution.) 

The city is divided into three basic zoning districts: 
residential (R), commercial (C) and manufacturing 
(M).' The three basic districts are further divided into 
a range of lower-, medium- and higher-density resi- 
dential, commercial and manufacturing districts. 

Any of these districts may in turn be overlaid by 
special zoning districts tailored to the unique char- 
acteristics of certain neighborhoods (see Chapter 6, 
Special Purpose Districts). Some blockfronts in 
residential districts may have a commercial overlay 
district as well in order to provide neighborhood retail 
stores and services. Limited Height Districts another 
type of overlay district, impose height limits on new 
buildings in certain historic districts designated by 
the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission.These 
overlay districts modify and supplement the controls 
of the underlying zoning districts. 

The chapters that follow summarize the regulations 
for each district and illustrate the typical building 
forms they are likely to produce. 



Each zoning district regulates: 

• permitted uses listed in one or more of 18 use 
grouffs; 

• the size of the building in relation to the size 
of the zoning lot, known as the floor area 
ratio or FAR; 

• for residential uses, the number of dwelling 
units permitted, the amount of open space 
and plantings required on the zoning lot and 
the maximum amount of the lot that can be 
covered by a building; 

• the distance between the building and the 
front, side and rear lot lines; 

• the amount of required or permitted parking; 
and 

• other features applicable to specific residen- 
tial, commercial or manufacturing districts. 



Words shown in boldface/italics are 
defined in the Glossary of Planning Terms. 
Words are usually highlighted in this way only 
once within a chapter or major section of the 
Handbook. However, not all terms defined in the 
glossary are necessarily highlighted in the text. 



Residential, commercial, industrial/transportation, and public 
facility uses currently occupy about 65 percent of the city's 
total lot area. Another 10 percent is vacant or occupied by 
parking or miscellaneous uses. The remaining lot area, about 
25 percent, is parkland or other open space, most of which 
is not subject to zoning regulations. (Lot area is exclusive of 
streets, which comprise about 21 percent of the city's gross 
land area.) 



The zoning text and maps may be downloaded from 
the NYC Department of City Planning website at 
www.nyc.gov/planning or purchased at the City Planning 
bookstore at the Department of City Planning, 22 Reade 
Street, New York, NY 10007-1216. 



Chapter 3 

Residence Districts 

Residence districts are the most com- 
mon zoning districts in New York City, 
accounting for about 75 percent of the 
city's zoned land area. These districts accommodate 
an extraordinary variety of residential building 
forms — ranging from the single-family homes set 
amid wide lawns on the city's outskirts to the soar- 
ing towers of Manhattan. 

To regulate such diversity, the Zoning Resolution 
designates 10 basic residence districts — Rl through 
RIO. The numbers refer to permitted bulk and 
density (with Rl having the lowest density and RIO 
the highest) and other controls such as required 
parking. A second letter or number in some districts 
signifies additional controls. Unless otherwise 
stated, the regulations for each district apply to all 
subcategories within that district. Regulations for 
the R4 district, for example, encompass R4-1, R4A 
and R4B districts, except where specific differences 
are noted. 

Residences are permitted in all commercial districts 
except C7 and C8. Certain higher-density commercial 
districts mapped primarily in Manhattan are, in fact, 
substantially residential in character. In applicable 
commercial districts, the size of a residential building 
or the residential portion of a mixed building is gov- 
erned by the bulk provisions of a specified equivalent 
residential district. For example, R6 is the residential 
district equivalent of C4-2 and C4-3 districts. (See 
Chapter 4, Commercial Districts, and Appendix E for 
zoning data tables.) 

Residence districts permit most community facili- 
ties, such as schools, houses of worship and medical 
facilities. In certain districts, the maximum permit- 
ted floor area ratio (FAR) for community facilities 
exceeds the maximum permitted FAR for residential 
uses in order to accommodate needed services, such 
as medical centers or schools. In districts limited to 
one- and two-family homes, however, certain facili- 
ties are not permitted or are restricted in size. (See 
Chapter 9, Community Facilities.) 




A detacfied building is a freestanding structure surrounded by 
yards or other open areas on the same zoning lot. 




A semi-detactied building abuts another building on an adjoining 
zoning lot along one side lot line and is surrounded on all other 
sides by yards. 




An attached building abuts two side lot lines or other buildings 
on the same or adjoining zoning lots. 



LOWER DENSITY DISTRICTS (R1-RS) 

Lower-density residence districts are usually found 
far from central business districts in areas with limited 
access to mass transit. These areas are characterized 
by low building heights, landscaped yards and high 
auto ownership. Some lower-density neighborhoods 
are comprised entirely of single-family detached 
homes on large lots, others have one- and two- 
family detached homes on smaller lots, and still 
other neighborhoods have detached, semi-detached 
and attached buildings all mixed together. 

Detached and semi-detached buildings typically 
accommodate either a single family or two families 
in separate dwelling units. Attached buildings may 
house one, two or more families. Rl and R2 districts 
allow only detached single-family residences. R3A, 
R3X, R4A and R5A districts allow only detached 
single- and two-family residences. R3-1 and R4-1 
districts permit both detached and semi-detached 
one- and two-family houses. R4B districts also 
permit attached rowhouses limited to one and 
two families. In addition, zero tot line buildings 
are permitted in R3A, R4-1, R4B, R5B and R5D 
districts. R3-2, R4, R5, R5B and R5D districts are 
general residence districts that permit all housing 
types and are distinguished by differing hulk and 
density, height and setback, lot coverage or ofcn 
space, and parking requirements. 

Since 1989, R3, R4 and R5 districts with an A, B, 
D, X or 1 suffix have been created or revised as 
contextual districts to prevent the out-of-scale 
development that can blur distinctions among resi- 
dence districts and alter the character of the city's 
traditional low-rise neighborhoods. The regulations 
for these new and revised districts aim to preserve 
neighborhood scale by reflecting bulk distinctions, 
building configurations and established lot sizes of 
many residential neighborhoods. 

A maximum height limit is established for every 
building in an R3, R4 and R5 district, including the 
traditional low-rise rowhouse districts (R4B and 
R5B). The familiar roof line of districts character- 
ized by pitched roofs (R2X, R3, R4, R4-1 and R4A) 
is encouraged by establishing a maximum, ferimeter 
wall height, above which pitched roofs or setbacks 



are required. An increase in floor area {attic allow- 
ance) is permitted for space beneath a pitched roof. 
Front yard planting is required in all lower density 
districts, and more on-street parking is ensured by 
controlling the location and dimensions of drive- 
ways and curb cuts. 

Some Rl, R2, R3, R4-1, R4A and C3A districts are 
designated as Lower Density Growth Management 
Areas (LDGMA), where residential developments 
are required to provide more parking spaces, larger 
yards and more open space. Designated areas 
include all such zoning districts in Staten Island 
and in Bronx Community District 10, as well as 
all developments accessed by private roads in Rl 
through R5 and C3A districts. CI, C2 and C4 dis- 
tricts in Staten Island are also designated areas. (See 
LDGMA in Chapter 11, Zoning Tools). 

MODERATE- AND HIGHER-DENSITY 
DISTRICTS (R6-R10) 

Moderate- and higher-density residence districts are 
generally found close to central and regional busi- 
ness districts and are usually mapped in proximity 
to mass transit. These areas are characterized by 
bulkier buildings, a greater range of building heights 
and less auto ownership than lower-density areas. 
Like lower-density residence districts, however, the 
character of these neighborhoods varies widely. 
Some are defined entirely by rowhouses, others by 
low apartment houses or high-rise buildings and 
still others by a mixture of all building types. 

Moderate- and higher-density residential districts 
are broadly characterized as either contextual or 
non-contextual. 

Non-Contextual Districts 

Non-contextual districts are generally mapped 
where there is a diverse mix of building types and no 
predominant context. R6, R7-1, R7-2, R8, R9 and RIO 
are non-contextual districts. The bulk regulations 
for these districts, introduced in 1961, encourage the 
development of buildings without height limits set 
back from the street and surrounded by open space. 
The building form is a product of the "tower-in-the- 
park" vision of urban planning popular in the 1950s. 



In R6 through R9 districts, the bulk regulations 
are known as height factor regulations, where the 
size of a building is determined by a complex set of 
rules involving the interrelationship between a range 
of height factors, floor area ratios and open sface 
ratios. Instead of a single floor area ratio for each 




district, higher floor area ratios are allowed for tall 
buildings on lots where large areas of open space 
can be provided. Lower floor area ratios are allowed 
on smaller lots where less open space is possible. 
In general, the larger the size of the lot, the taller 
the building permitted. (See Zoning Analysis 2 in 
Appendix A for an R6 height factor building.) 

In RIO districts there are no height factors or open 
space ratios. Each zoning lot, regardless of its size, 
has a floor area ratio of 10.0. Open space is controlled 
by a lot coverage requirement. 

There are no height limits for non-contextual build- 
ings in R6 through RIO non-contextual districts. 
Instead, a building is not allowed to penetrate a sky 
exposure plane, which slopes inwards from a speci- 
fied base height above the street line. Therefore, the 
further a building is set back from the street line, 
the taller it can be. 

In R9 and RIO districts, as well as commercial dis- 
tricts with an R9 or RIO residental district equivalent, 
developers may choose to build pursuant to tower 
regulations, which allow a building to penetrate a 



sky exposure plane. Buildings of great height are 
possible if built as towers. In response to concerns of 
excessive tower height in predominantly residential 
areas, tower-on-a-base regulations were introduced 
in 1994. All residential towers on wide streets in R9 
and RIO districts, and CI and C2 districts with an 
R9 or RIO residental district equivalent, must be built 
above a building base of between five and eight stories 
that is built at the street line. Special floor area rules 
ensure that the height of the towers does not exceed 
approximately 35 stories. 




To encourage an alternative to both height factor 
buildings and tower buildings, the Quality Housing 
Program was introduced in the 1980's and is 
allowed to be used as an option instead of height 
factor or tower regulations in any R6 through RIO 
non-contextual district. The Quality Housing bulk 
regulations allow higher lot coverage, and in many 
instances greater FAR in exchange for height limits 
that are often more compatible with the surround- 
ing context. 

Contextual Districts 

Contextual districts are designed to maintain the 
scale and form of the city's traditional moderate- 
and higher-density neighborhoods. These districts, 
which have an A, B, D or X letter suffix (R6A, R6B, 
R7A, R7B, R7D, R7X, R8A, R8B, R8X, R9A, R9D, 
R9X, RIOA and RlOX) are mapped where buildings 
of similar size and shape form a strong neighborhood 



context, or where redevelopment would create a uni- 
form context. The bulk regulations for these districts 
are known as Quality Housing regulations. 

Created in the 1980's to promote high-quality hous- 
ing harmonious with its neighbors, the Quality 




Housing Program was a response to concerns that 
height factor buildings were often out-of-scale 
with the surrounding neighborhood. The program 
assigns a single floor area ratio to each district, and 
includes bulk regulations that typically produce 
buildings that are shorter and have higher lot cov- 
erage than height factor buildings. Height limits, 
rules for the placement of the street wall of a build- 
ing in relation to neighboring buildings, and rules 
governing the minimum and maximum height of 
a street wall are among the contextual regulations 
that promote the development of buildings that are 
compatible with their surroundings. Ground level 
setbacks in front of a building must be planted and 
parking spaces must be located in an underground 
garage or behind or to the side of a building - never 
in front of the building. Because less open space 
is available for parking, slightly less parking is 
required than for height factor developments. 

The Quality Housing Program also establishes 
a set of rules that includes minimum apartment 
sizes, recreation space requirements and incen- 
tives for developers to provide amenities such as 
laundry rooms and daylight in corridors. All of the 
Quality Housing Program rules and regulations are 
mandatory in contextual R6 through RIO districts. 
Since the 1980's, hundreds of areas throughout 
the city have been rezoned as contextual districts. 



(See Zoning Analysis 3 in Appendix A for an R6A 
contextual building.) 

Optional Quality Housing Regulations 
in Non-Contextual Districts 

In non-contextual R6 through RIO districts, devel- 
opers may choose the optional Quality Housing 
Program instead of height factor or tower regula- 
tions. For example, on a wide street in an R6 district 
outside of Manhattan, a developer may choose to 
build under the optional R6 bulk regulations (which 
are the same as those for a contextual R6A district). 
In general, the regulations allow moderately larger 
but lower buildings set at or near the street line, 
with more apartments than might be achievable 
under non-contextual regulations, as a way of 
encouraging the mid-rise apartment buildings that 
reflect the traditional scale of many neighborhoods. 
Although higher lot coverage and, often, greater 
FAR can be achieved in exchange for height limits, 
sometimes height factor regulations may be prefer- 
able because the surrounding blocks do not have a 
consistent character or because the views attainable 
by a taller building outweigh the advantages of 
greater bulk. Developers must determine which of 
the two sets of regulations is more appropriate for 
any given site but cannot mix and match the two 
on the same zoning lot. The taller heights permitted 
for height factor buildings, for example, cannot be 
combined with the higher lot coverage permitted for 
Quality Housing buildings. (See Zoning Analysis 4 
in Appendix A for an optional contextual building 
in an R7-1 district.) 

Other Zoning Districts: R7-3, R9 1, R10H 

R7-3 and R9-1 districts, where special bulk, height 
and setback provisions apply, may be mapped only 
within waterfront areas and certain sf^ecial fntr- 
fwse districts. R7-3 is mapped within the Special 
Hunters Point District and along the Williamsburg 
waterfront. 

RIOH, a district allowing transient hotels by special 
ffermit in addition to residential and community 
facility uses, is mapped only along Central Park 
South, and Fifth Avenue between East 59"' and East 
61" Streets in Manhattan. 




Rl districts are leafy, low-density neigh- 
borhoods of large, single-family detached 
homes on spacious lots. Resembling many 
suburbs, these districts are mapped in a 
few areas of the city, such as Todt Hill 
(Rl-1) in Staten Island, Jamaica Estates 
(Rl-2) in Queens, and Fieldston (Rl-2) 
in the Bronx. R1-2A is mapped in Forest 
Hills in Queens. 

There are three Rl districts. Although new 
homes in Rl-1 districts must be on larger 
and wider lots than homes in Rl-2 and 
R1-2A districts, generous yard require- 
ments and high open space ratio (OSR) 
or lot coverage regulations preserve the 
open space that characterizes all Rl dis- 
tricts. The floor area ratio (FAR) of 0,5 
and the sizeable required lot area tend to 
produce big, roomy houses. The maximum 
height of buildings in Rl-1 and Rl-2 dis- 
tricts is not fixed but is governed by a sky 
exposure plane; contextual regulations 
in R1-2A districts produce buildings that 
maintain neighborhood scale and charac- 
ter with a maximum perimeter wall of 25 
feet, a maximum building height of 35 feet 
and a front yard as deep as a neighboring 
yard. Auto ownership rates are high and, 
as in other lower-density districts which 
are often distant from mass transit, one 
off-street parking space is required for each 
dwelling unit. 





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Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


OSR 

(percent) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
PerimeterWall 

(max) 


Required 
Parl<ing 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 




100 ft 


9,500 sf 


0.5 


150.0 


20 ft 


30 ft 


2 


35 ft 


15 ft 


na' 


1 per dwelling unit 




60 ft 


5,700 sf 


0.5 


150.0 


20 ft 


30 ft 


2 


20 ft 


8 ft 


na' 


1 per dwelling unit 




60 ft 


5,700 sf 


0.5 


na-' 


20 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


20 ft 


8 ft 


35 ft/25 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Crowtli Management Areas 

30% maximum lot coverage 

front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent yard with a minimum deptfi of 20 feet 

Height controlled by sky exposure plane, a sloping line that begins at a height of 25 feet above front yard line 




Residential development in R2 districts 
is limited exclusively to single-family de- 
tached houses. Floral Park in Queens, parts 
of City Island and Riverdale in the Bronx, 
and Westerleigh on Staten Island's north 
shore are typical R2 districts. 

The smaller lot area and lot width re- 
quirements in R2 districts allow a higher 
density than in R1 districts, although the 
maximum floor area ratio (FAR) of 0.5 

is the same. The minimum lot width is 40 
feet, compared to 60 and 100 feet in Rl 
districts. The maximum height of build- 
ings is not fixed but is governed by a sky 
expoiure plane. As in other lower-density 
residence districts, one off-street parking 
space is required for each dwelling unit. 




City hkinc! 

































Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


OSR 

(percent) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building 
Height 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


I:i 


# 


Total Each 




40 ft 


3,800 sf 


0.5 


150.0 


15 ft 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 5 ft 


na2 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Loner Density Growth Management Areas 

Height controlled by sky exposure plane, a sloping line that begins at a height of 25 feet above front yard line 



R2A 



R2A is a contextual district intended to 
preserve low-rise neighborhoods charac- 
terized by single-family detached homes 
on lots with a minimum width of 40 
feet. The district is mapped in sections of 
Bayside, Whitestone and Cambria Heights 
in Queens. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) of 0.5 in 

R2A districts includes all space within a 
building, including basement and usable 
attic space, resulting in smaller homes 
than those found in other districts with 
similar floor area ratios. Only garages are 
exempt from floor area calculations, up to 
a maximum of 300 square feet. Lot cover- 
age of the house and any separate garage 
is limited to 309b of the zoning lot. As in 
R2 districts, the width of the two required 
side yards must total a minimum of 13 
feet, each at least five feet wide. The front 
yard must be at least 15 feet deep; unlike 
other R2 districts, however, it must be at 
least as deep as an adjacent front yard, but 
need not exceed 20 feet. The maximum 
building height is fixed at 35 feet and the 
perimeter wall may rise no higher than 
21 feet. One off-street parking space is 
required for each dwelling unit. 





Whitestone 



Cambria Heigltts 


























] 




Lot 
Widtli 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wail 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


0.5 


30% 


15 ft^ 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth t\^anagement Areas 

l^ront yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum depth of IS feet 




R2X 



Ocean Parkway 




R2X districts allow large single-family 
detached houses on lots with a minimum 
width of 30 feet. R2X districts are mapped 
in Brooklyn in parts of Midwood within the 
Special Ocean Parkway District and part of 
Far Rockaway in Queens. 

The higher floor area ratio (FAR) and 

permitted rear yard encroachment in R2X 
districts produce buildings with greater 
bulk than in any other single-family resi- 
dence district. The 0.85 FAR is considerably 
higher than in other R2 districts and may 
be increased up to 1 .02 by an attic allow- 
ance for the inclusion of space beneath a 
pitched roof. The perimeter wall may rise 
to 21 feet before sloping or being set back 
to a maximum building height of 35 feet. 
Although other residence districts require 
a 30-foot rear yard, houses in R2X districts 
may extend 1 feet into the rear yard. The 
amount of required open space on a lot is 
governed by yard requirements. As in other 
lower density districts, the R2X district 
requires one off-street parking space for 
each dwelling unit. 




Midwood 





















1 




Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


30 ft 


2,850 sf 


0.85' 


15 ft 


20 ft 


2 


10 ft 


2 ft- 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 



R3-1 



R3-1 contextual districts are the lowest 
density districts that allow semi-detached 
one- and two-family residences, as well as 
detached homes. R3-1 districts generally 
follow existing patterns of development 
in the Bronx, Queens, Staten Island and 
south Brooklyn. 

In R3-1 districts, the minimum lot width 
for detached houses is 40 feet; semi- 
detached buildings must be on zoning 
lots that are at least 18 feet wide. For both 
detached and semi-detached houses, the 
maximum lot coverage is 3590 and the 
0.5 FAR may be increased by an attic 
allowance of up to 20'!o for the inclu- 
sion of space beneath a pitched roof. The 
perimeter wall may rise to 21 feet before 
sloping or being set back to a maximum 
building height of 35 feet. The front yard 
must be at least 15 feet deep. Two side 
yards with a minimum combined width 
of 13 feet are reguired for a detached resi- 
dence; one eight foot side yard is required 
for each semi-detached residence. All 
parking must be located in the side or rear 
yard or in the garage. An in-house garage 
is permitted in a semi-detached house, or 
in a detached house if the lot is 40 feet 
or wider. One off-street parking space is 
required for each dwelling unit. 





Castleton Corners 




Country Club 

















] 








Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wail 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


0.5- 


359b 


15 ft 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 


Semi-detached 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


8 ft 


na 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Crowtli I\i1anagcment Areas 
MR nwy be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 



R3-2 




New Springville 




R3-2 districts are general residence districts 
that allow a variety of housing types, includ- 
ing low-rise attached houses, small multi- 
family apartment houses, and detached 
and semi-detached one- and two-family 
residences. It is the lowest density zoning 
district in which multiple dwellings are 
permitted. Because of their flexibility, R3-2 
districts are mapped widely in all boroughs 
except Manhattan. 

The 0.5 floor area ratio (fAR) may be 
increased by an attic allowance of up to 

209b for the inclusion of space beneath a 
pitched roof. The perimeter wall may rise 
to 21 feet before sloping or being set back 
to a maximum building height of 35 feet. 
Lots with detached homes must be at least 
40 feet wide; if occupied by semi-detached 
and attached buildings, lots must be at 
least 18 feet wide. The maximum street 
wall length for a building on a zoning lot 
is 1 25 feet. The maximum lot coverage 
of any residence is 359o. Front yards must 
be at least 15 feet deep. Cars may park in 
the side or rear yard, in the garage or in 
the front yard within the side lot ribbon; 
parking is also allowed within the front 
yard when the lot is wider than 35 feet. 
One off-street parking space is required 
for each dwelling unit. 




Wi 



Bayclteste 























Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wail 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


l^ft-' 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


0.5 = 


359d 


15 ft 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft'' 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 


Other 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


8 ft 


na 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth Management Areas 

FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Buildings with three dwelling units or more must have 2 side yards, each with a minimum width of 8 feet; side yards for buildings wider than 

SO feet must each be a minimum of W percent of the building width 



R3A 



Cliaracteristic of many of the city's older 
neighborhoods, R3A contextual districts 
feature modest single- and two-family de- 
tached residences on zoning lots as narrow 
as 25 feet in width. Parts of College Point 
and Whitestone in Queens, City Island in 
the Bronx and Port Richmond in Staten 
Island are typical R3A neighborhoods. 

The amount of required open space on 

residential lots in R3A districts is governed 
by yard requirements. New detached 
homes must have two side yards totaling 
at least eight feet, but there is no minimum 
width requirement for either one. R3A 
districts also permit zero lot line build- 
ings which are set along a side lot line and 
have one side yard at least eight feet wide. 
The front yard of a new home must be at 
least 10 feet deep and, to promote a uni- 
fied streetscape, it must be as deep as an 
adjacent front yard but need not exceed a 
depthof 20feet. The maximum floor area 
ratio (fAR) of 0.5 may be increased up to 
209o by an attic allowance for the inclu- 
sion of space beneath a pitched roof. The 
perimeter wall may rise to 21 feet before 
sloping or being set back to a maximum 
building height of 35 feet. Parking is in the 
side or rear yard but an in-house garage is 
allowed if the lot is 35 feet or wider, pro- 
vided the driveway is at least 1 8 feet deep. 
One off-street parking space is required for 
each dwelling unit. 





College Point 




































"M 


ity-^''gigg^«f^ia^^a^ff?«?yf' 


Pv 




4 


my vetawfieu ncaiuenc 


P 




Lot 
Widtli 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards' (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


25 ft 


2,375 sf 


0,5^ 


10 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


8 ft 


na 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth Management Areas 

FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum depth of 10 feet 

Zero lot line buildings require only one side yard at least 8 feet wide; minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 




R3X 



R3X contextual districts, mapped exten- 
sively in lower-density neighborhoods, 
such as Forest Hills in Queens and Prince's 
Bay and Westerleigh in Staten Island, per- 
mit only one- and two-family detached 
homes on lots that must be at least 35 
feet wide. 

The 0.5 floor area ratio (FAR) in R3X 

districts may be increased by an fitik 
allowance of up to 20% for the inclu- 
sion of space beneath a pitched roof. The 
perimeter wall may rise to 21 feet before 
sloping or being set back to a maximum 
building height of 35 feet. The amount of 
required open space on a lot is governed 
by yard requirements. Two side yards that 
total at least 1 feet are required and there 
must be a minimum distance of eight feet 
between houses on adjacent lots. The 
front yard of a new home must be at least 
fO feet deep and, to promote a unified 
streetscape, it must be at least as deep as 
an adjacent frontyard but need not exceed 
a depth of 20 feet. An in-house garage is 
permitted within the building provided 
the driveway is at least 1 8 feet deep. One 
off-street parking space is required for 
each dwelling unit. 




Prince's Bay 

































Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


ri**' 


# 


Total 


Each 




35 ft 


3,325 sf 


0.5' 


10 ft^ 


30 ft 


2 


10 ft 


2ft^ 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Crowth Management Areas 

FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum deptli of 10 feet 

Ivlinimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 



R4 districts allow all types of housing at a 
slightly higher density than permitted in 
R3-2 districts. The floor area ratio (FAR) 
of 0.75, plus an attic allowance of up 
to 20% for inclusion of space under the 
pitched roof common to these districts, 
usually produces buildings with three 
stories instead of the two-story homes 
characteristic of R3 districts. Much of the 
residential development in North Corona 
in Queens and Arden Heights in Staten 
Island Is typical of R4 districts. 

To accommodate a potential third floor 
beneath a pitched roof, the perimeter wall 
in R4 districts may rise to 25 feet before 
being set bacl< to the maximum building 
height of 35 feet. Front yards must be 1 
feet deep or, if deeper, a minimum of 1 8 
feet to provide sufficient space for on-site 
parking. Cars may park in the side or rear 
yard, in the garage or in the front yard 
within the iide lot ribbon; the driveway 
must be within the side lot ribbon unless 
the lot is wider than 35 feet. Detached 
houses must have two side yards that total 
at least 1 3 feet and each one must be at 
least five feet wide. Semi-detached build- 
ings need one side yard with a minimum 
width of eight feet. The maximum street 
wall length for a building on a single zon- 
ing lot is 185 feet. One off-street parking 
space is required for each dwelling unit. 




Noith Corona 


































Lot 
Widtli 

(min) 


Lot 

Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wail 

(max) 


Required 
Parl<ing 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


0.75' 


45';o 


10ft' 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft' 


35 ft/25 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 


Other' 


18ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


8 ft 


na 



' Maximum building length on a zoning lot is 185 ket 
' FAR may be increased up to 20% lor attic allowance 
' If depth of front yard exceeds 10 feet, it must be at least 18 feet deep 

" Buildings with 3 or more dwelling units must have 2 side yards, each at least 8 feet wide; side yards for buildings wider than 80 feet must each be a minimum of 
10% of the building width 




R4 Infill 



On a block entirely within an R4 district 
(without a suffix), optional regulations 
may be used to develop infill housing 
in predominantly built-up areas. Infill 
regulations may be used if at least 50")'o 
of the area of the block is occupied by 
zoning lots developed with buildings, and 
the lot does not exceed 1 .5 acres (65,340 
sq. ft.) However, infill regulations may not 
be used to redevelop a lot occupied by 
a one- or two-family detached or semi- 
detached house unless the blockfront is 
predominantly developed with attached 
or multifamily housing or commercial or 
manufacturing uses. Infill regulations can 
be found in the definition of predomi- 
nantly built-up areas in Section 12-10 of 
the Zoning Resolution. 

On sites that qualify for infill housing, the 
higher floor area ratio (PAR) of 1 .35 and 

/ot coverage of 55';'o for R4 infill housing, 
as well as more relaxed parking require- 
ments, permit developments with greater 
bulk and more dwelling units than are 
otherwise permitted in R4 districts. Infill 
regulations typically produce three-story 
buildings with three dwelling units and 
two parking spaces — one in a ground- 
floor garage and the other in the front 
yard driveway. Infill regulations can also 
produce small apartment buildings. 

To ensure that infill housing generally 
conforms to existing neighborhood scale, 
height and setback regulations for R4 infill 
housing are the same as for R4 districts. 
The maximum street wall length for a 
building on a single zoning lot is 1 85 feet. 
Front yards must be at least 1 8 feet deep to 
prevent cars parked in the front driveway 
from jutting onto the sidewalk. Off-street 
parking is required for two-thirds of the 
dwelling units. 







Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


1.35 


55% 


18 ft 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft' 


35 ft/25 ft 


66'va of dwelling units 


Other 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


8 ft 


na 



' Buildings witli 3 or more dwelling units must have 2 side yards, each at least 8 feet wide; side yards for buildings wider than SO teet must each be a minimum 
of 10 percent of the building width 



R4 



R4-1 contextual districts, like R3-1 dis- 
tricts, permit only one- and two-family 
detached and semi-detached houses. 
Despite a narrower minimum lot width of 
25 feet for detached homes, houses in R4-1 
districts tend to be larger than those in 
R3-1 districts because of the higher floor 
area ratio {FAR) of 0.75 plus an attic 
allowance. The perimeter wall may rise 
to 25 feet, compared to 21 feet in R3-1 
districts, before sloping or being set back 
to a maximum building height of 35 feet. 
Sections of Middle Village in Queens and 
Bay Ridge in Brooklyn are R4-1 districts. 

Two side yards that total eight feet must 
be provided for a detached residence. 
There is no minimum width for each side 
yard but there must be eight feet between 
buildings on adjacent zoning lots. One 
four foot side yard is required for each 
semi-detached residence, which must be 
on a lotat least 18 feet wide. Zero lot line 
buildings, permitted in R4-1 districts, re- 
quire only one eight foot side yard. Front 
yards must be at least 10 feet deep and 
at least as deep as an adjacent front yard 
but need not exceed a depth of 20 feet. 
Parking must be within the side or rear 
yard or in a garage. An in-house garage is 
permitted within a semi-detached house, 
or in a detached house if the lot is 35 feet 
or wider. One off-street parking space is 
required for each dwelling unit. 





'Tront yard must be at least as 
deep as an adjacent front yard 
.with a minimum depth of 10' 



Bay Ridge 































P^ 


Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards^ (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required Parking 

(min) 




# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


25 ft 


2,375 sf 


0.75- 


10 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


8 ft 


na 


35 ft/25 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 


4 ft 


na 


Semi-detached 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth Management Areas 

FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum deptli of 10 feet 

Zero lot line buildings require only one side yard at least 8 feet wide; minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 




R4A 



Woodlawn 




R4A contextual districts are similar to R3A 
and R3X districts in that only one- and two- 
family detached residences are permitted. 
Differences in the maximum permitted 
floor area ratio (FAR) and minimum re- 
quired lot size, however, result in variations 
in the typical building envelope found 
in each district. Characterized by houses 
with two stories and an attic beneath a 
pitched roof, R4A districts have an FAR 
of up to 0.75 (plus an attic allowance) 
and a minimum lot width of 30 feet. The 
districts are usually mapped in older neigh- 
borhoods, such as Woodlawn and Throgs 
Neck in the Bronx. 

As in R3A and R3X districts, the perimeter 
wall of a house may rise to 21 feet before 
sloping or being set back to the maximum 
building height of 35 feet. A front yard 
must be at least as deep as an adjacent 
front yard and at least 1 feet deep, but it 
need not exceed a depth of 20 feet. A 30 
foot deep rear yard, and two side yards 
that total at least 10 feet with a minimum 
width of two feet each are also required. 
There must be at least eight feet between 
buildings on adjacent lots. Parking must 
be located in the side or rear yard and 
the driveway must be within the side lot 
ribbon. If the lot is 35 feet or wider, a 
garage is permitted within the house, 
provided the driveway is at least 18 feet 
deep to prevent cars from jutting onto the 
sidewalk. One off-street parking space is 
required for each dwelling unit. 























! 




Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


30 ft 


2,850 sf 


0.75- 


10ft' 


30 ft 


2 


10 ft 


2 ft- 


35 ft/21 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth l^anagement Areas 

FAR may be increased up to 20% for attic allowance 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum depth of 10 feet 

Minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 



R4B 



Primarily a contextual rowhouse district 
limited to low-rise, one- and two-family 
attached residences, R4B districts also 
permit detached and semi-detached 
buildings. However, the floor area ratio 
(FAR) of 0.9 and maximum building 
height of 24 feet typically produce a tvjo- 
story, flat-roofed rowhouse. Parts of Bay 
Ridge in Brooklyn and Middle Village and 
Brookville in Queens are mapped R4B. 

To maintain the characteristic rowhouse 
streetscape of R4B districts, the front yard 
of a new house must be at least five feet 
deep and at least as deep as one adjacent 
front yard but no deeper than the other, 
although it need not exceed a depth of 20 
feet. Detached houses must have two side 
yards totaling at least eight feet; there is no 
minimum width for a side yard but there 
must be at least eight feet between build- 
ings on adjacent zoning lots. Zero lot line 
buildingi require only one eight foot side 
yard and semi-detached buildings require 
one side yard at least four feet wide. One 
off-street parking space is required for each 
dwelling unit, although parking is waived 
when only one space is required. Front 
yard parking is not allowed. Curb cuts are 
prohibited on zoning lot frontages that are 
less than 40 feet. 





Middle Village 




Brookville 











mm ^"^im^^^^^MMm^mnim^m^^mMm^m 






Lot 
Widtli 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards' (min) 


Building Height/ 
Street Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


25 ft 


2,375 sf 


0.9 


55'?o 


5 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


8 ft 


na 


24 ft 


1 per dwelling unit* 


Semi-detached 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


4 ft 


na 



Front yard must be as deep as one adjacent front yard but no deeper than other adjacent front yard 

Zero lot line buildings require only one side yard at least 8 feet wide; minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 

Waived where only one space is required 



>"<-SSS'S,i-'i'C--'5 





RS districts allow a variety of housing at 
a higher density than permitted in R3-2 
and R4 districts. The floor area ratio 

(FAR) of 1,25 typically produces three- 
and four-story attached houses and small 
apartment houses. With a height limit 
of 40 feet, R5 districts provide a transi- 
tion between lower- and higher-density 
neighborhoods and are widely mapped in 
Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx. Portions 
of WindsorTerrace and Ocean Parkway in 
Brooklyn are R5 districts. 

To ensure compatibility with neighborhood 
scale, the maximum street wall height of 
a new building is 30 feet, with a 15 foot 
setback and a maximum height of 40 
feet. Detached houses must have two side 
yards that total at least 1 3 feet, each with a 
minimum width of five feet. Semi-detached 
buildings need one eight foot wide side 
yard. Front yards must be 10 feet deep or, 
if deeper, aminimumoflS feet to prevent 
cars parked on-site from protruding onto 
the sidewalk. Cars may park in the side or 
rear yard, in the garageor in the front yard 
within the side lot ribbon; parking is also 
allowed within the front yard when the lot 
is wider than 35 feet. Off-street parking is 
required for 85')b of the dwelling units in 
the building. 




Ocean Paikway 







Lot 
Widtli 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Height/ 
Street Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


1.25 


55'-lb 


1 f t- 


30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft-' 


40 ft/30 ft 


85'?d of dwelling units 


Other' 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


8 ft 


na 



' Maximum building length on a zoning lot is 185 feet 
' If depth of front yard exceeds 10 feet, it must be at least 18 feet deep 

' Buildings with 3 or more dwelling units tvust have 2 side yards, each at least 8 feet wide; side yards for buildings wider than 80 feet must each be a minimum 
of 10 percent of the building width 



R5 Infill 



Mfi^t 



On a block entirely within an R5 district 
(without a suffix), optional regulations 
may be used to develop infill housing 
in predominantly built-up areas. Infill 
regulations may be used if at least 509o 
of the area of the block is occupied by 
zoning lots developed with buildings, and 
the lot does not exceed 1.5 acres (65,340 
sq ft). However, infill regulations may not 
be used to redevelop a lot occupied by 
a one- or two-family detached or semi- 
detached house unless the blockfront is 
predominantly developed with attached 
or multi-family housing, or commercial 
or manufacturing uses. Infill regulations 
can be found in the definition of predomi- 
nantly built-up areas in Section 12-10 of 
the Zoning Resolution. 

On sites that qualify for infill housing, 
the higher floor area ratios (FAR) of 

1 .65 and more relaxed parking require- 
ments permit developments with greater 
bulk and more dwelling units than are 
otherwise permitted in R5 districts; infill 
regulations typically produce three-story 
buildings with three dwelling units and 
two parking spaces — one in a ground- 
floor garage and the other in the driveway. 
Infill regulations can also produce small 
apartment buildings. 

To ensure that infill housing generally 
conforms to existing neighborhood scale, 
height and setback regulations for R5 infill 
housing are the same as for R5B districts. 
The maximum street wall length for a 
building on a single zoning lot is 1 85 feet. 
Front yards must be at least 1 8 feet deep 
to prevent cars parked in the front drive- 
way from protruding onto the sidewalk. 
Off-street parking must be provided for at 
least two-thirds of the dwelling units. 
















&;.:>a::St«-W#*S'^ ; -^ 










1 


Infill Regulatio 


[;■ 


^H^^iBja^ 


Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building Heiglit/ 
Street Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


■iM> 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


40 ft 


3,800 sf 


1.65 


55"i 




30 ft 


2 


13 ft 


5 ft-' 


33 ft/30 ft 


66% of dwelling units 


Other' 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 






1 


8 ft 


na 



' Maximum building length on a zoning lot is 185 feet 

^ Buildings with 3 or more dwelling units must have 2 side yards, each at least 8 feet wide; side yards for buildings wider tlian 80 feet must each be a minimum 
of 10 percent of the building width 




R5A 



Williamsbridge 




R5A contextual districts, mapped in the 
northeast Bronx neigiiborhoods of Olinville 
and Williamsbridge, permit only one- and 
two-family detached residences with a 
maximum 1.1 floor area ratio (FAR). 
Similar to R4A districts, R5A districts are 
characterized by houses with two stories 
and an attic beneath a pitched roof, but 
the greater FAR and higher perimeter wall 
allow for somewhat larger buildings. 

The perimeter wall of a house may rise 
to 25 feet in R5A districts (compared to 
21 feet in R4A districts) before sloping or 
being set back to the maximum building 
height of 35 feet. The minimum lot width 
is 30 feet. The amount of required open 
space is governed by yard requirements 
that are the same as those in R4A districts: 
a front yard must be at least as deep as 
an adjacent front yard and at least 1 feet 
deep but it need not exceed a depth of 
20 feet; a 30 foot deep rear yard; and two 
side yards that total at least 10 feet, each 
with a minimum width of two feet. Cars 
may park in the side or rear yard; parking 
is also allowed within the front yard when 
the lot is wider than 35 feet. An in-house 
garage is permitted if the lot is at least 35 
feet wide. One off-street parking space is 
required for each dwelling unit. 




Olinville 





























m 


Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards- (min) 


Building Height/ 
Perimeter Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parking 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


30 ft 


2,850 sf 


1.1 


10 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


10 ft 


2 ft 


35 ft/25 ft 


1 per dwelling unit 



front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard with a minimum depth of 10 feet 
Minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 



R5B 



Although an R5B contextual district per- 
mits detached and semi-detached build- 
ings, it is primarily a three-story rowhouse 
district typical of such neighborhoods 
as Windsor Terrace and Bay Ridge in 
Brooklyn. The traditional quality of R5B 
districts is reflected in the district's height 
and setback, front yard and curb cut 
regulations that maintain the character 
of the neighborhood. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) of 1.35 typi- 
cally produces a building with a maximum 
street wall height of 30 feet, above which 
the building slopes or is set back to a 
maximum height of 33 feet. As in R4B 
districts, the front yard must be at least five 
feet deep and it must be at least as deep 
as one adjacent front yard and no deeper 
than the other, but it need not exceed a 
depth of 20 feet. Attached rowhouses do 
not require side yards but there must be at 
least eight feet between the end buildings 
in a row and buildings on adjacentzoning 
lots. Curb cuts are prohibited on zoning 
/ot frontages less than 40 feet. Where off- 
street parking is required, on-site spaces 
must be provided for two-thirds of the 
dwelling units although parking can be 
waived when only one space is required. 
Front yard parking is prohibited. 





Windsor Terrace 




Bay Ridge 











































Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot 
Coverage 

(max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards' (min) 


Building Heigiit/ 
Street Wall 

(max) 


Required 
Parl<ing 

(min) 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


25 ft 


2,375 sf 


1.35 


55% 


5 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


8 ft 


na 


33 ft/30 ft 


66')o of dwelling units 


1 


4 ft 


na 


Other 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 



Front yards must be as deep as one adjacent front yard but no deeper than other adjacent front yard 

Zero lot line buildings require one side yard at least 8 feet wide; minimum of 8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 




Rockaway Park 




R5D contextual districts, designed to en- 
courage residential growth along major 
corridors in auto-dependent areas of the 
city, are mapped in portions of the Jamaica 
and Rockaway Park neighborhoods in 
Queens and on Williamsbridge Road in the 
northeast area of the Bronx. 

R5D districts serve as a transition between 
lower-density districts and moderate-den- 
sity districts by incorporating the lot area, 
lot width and building envelope of R5B 
districts with certain aspects of the Quality 
Housing Program (available in R6 through 
R9 districts and RIO contextual districts) 
relating to interior building amenities, plant- 
ing and the location of accessory parking. 
Lot coverage requirements are the same as 
for R6 contextual districts. 

Characterized by moderate-density, multi- 
family housing, R5D districts have a 
maximum floor area ratio (FAR) of 2.0, 
a height limitation of 40 feet and a signifi- 
cant amount of required off-street parking, 
reflecting the lack of easy access to mass 
transit and the reliance on automobiles. 

The minimum lot width for single- and two- 
family detached houses is 25 feet; side yards 
are not required for lots less than 30 feet 
wide. Zero lot line buildings are permitted. 
As in R4B and R5B districts, the front yard 
must be at least five feet deep and at least 
as deep as one adjacent front yard but no 
deeper than the other, although it need not 
exceed a depth of 20 feet. 

Off-street parking, which is not permitted in 
front of the building, is required for 66<!'o of 
all dwelling units. Curb cuts are not permit- 
ted on a wide street if the zoning lot also 
fronts on a narrow street. 































_J 




Lot 
Width 

(min) 


Lot 
Area 

(min) 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Front 
Yard 

(min) 


Rear 
Yard 

(min) 


Side Yards (min) 


Building 
Height 

(max) 


Required 
Parliing 

(min) 


1 tl^jl'l 


Corner 
Lot 


Interior/Through 
Lot 


# 


Total 


Each 


Detached 


25 ft 


2,375 sf 


2.0 


80% 


6096 


5 ft' 


30 ft 


2 


8 ft 


na 


40 ft 


669b of 
dwelling units 


Other 


18 ft 


1,700 sf 


1 


4 ft 


na 



Front yard must be as deep as one adjacent front yard but no deeper than other adjacent front yard 

Not required for tots less tlian 30 feet wide. For iots at least 30 feet wide, zero lot line buildings require one side yard at least 8 feet wide; minimum of 

8 feet required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 



R6 zoning districts are widely mapped 
in built-up, medium-density areas in 
Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx. The 
character of R6 districts can range from 
neighborhoods with a diverse mix of 
building types and heights to large-scale 
"tower in the park" developments such as 
Ravenswood in Queens and Homecrest in 
Brooklyn. Developers can choose between 
two sets of bulk regulations. Standard 
height factor regulations, introduced in 
1961, produce small multifamily buildings 
on small zoning lots and, on larger lots, 
tall buildings that are set back from the 
street. Optional Quality Housing regula- 
tions produce high lot coverage buildings 
within height limits that often reflect the 
scale of older, pre-1961 apartment build- 
ings in the neighborhood. 

Height Factor Regulations 

Buildings developed pursuant to height 
factor regulations are often tall buildings 
set back from the street and surrounded by 
open space and on-site parking. The floor 
area ratio (FAR) in R6 districts ranges 
from 0.78 (for a single-story building) to 
2.43 at a typical height of 13 stories; the 
open space ratio (OSR) ranges from 27.5 
to 375. Generally, the more open space, 
the taller the building. In the diagram, for 
example, 81% of the zoning lot with the 
13-story building is required to be open 
space (2.43 FAR x 33.5 OSR). Thus, the 
maximum floor area ratio is achievable 
only where the zoning lot is large enough 
to accommodate a practical building 
footprint as well as the required amount 
of open space. There are no height limits 
for height factor buildings although they 
must be set within a sky exposure plane 
which begins at a height of 60 feet above 
the street line and then slopes inward 
over the zoning lot. Off-street parking is 
required for 70% of a building's dwelling 
units, or it can be waived if five or fewer 
spaces are required. 




Ravenswood 



Homecrest 








FAR 

(range) 


OSR 

(range) 


Building 
Heiglit 


Required Parl<ing 

(min) 


0.78-2.43 


27.5-375 


Governed by sky exposure plane 


70')b of dwelling units 



50":t it zoning iot is 10,000 square Icet or less; waived if 5 or fewer spaces required 




Quality Housing Regulations 

The optional Quality Housing regulations 
produce high lot coverage buildings set 
at or near the street line. Height limitations 
ensure that these buildings are often more 
compatible with older buildings in the 
neighborhood. As an incentive for develop- 
ers to choose the Quality Housing option 
outside the l^anhattan Core, greater FAR, 
and therefore, more apartments, is permit- 
ted for buildings on or within 1 00 feet of a 
wide street than would be permitted under 
height factor regulations. The FAR is 3.0; 
the maximum base height before setback 
is 60 feet with a maximum building height 
of 70 feet. On a narrow street (beyond 1 00 
feet of a wide street), the maximum FAR 
is 2.2; the maximum base height before 
setback is 45 feet with a maximum building 
height of 55 feet. The area between a build- 
ing's street wall and the street line must 
be planted and the buildings must have 
interior amenities for the residents pursuant 
to the Quality Housing Program. 

Off-street parking, which is not permitted 
in front of a building, is required for 509'o 
of all dwelling units, less than for height 
factor buildings because of the high lot 
coverage. Parking can be waived if five or 
fewer spaces are required. 



1 







Moinsania 









FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Height 

(max) 


Required Parlting^ 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


wyM 


Wide Street 


3.0' 


8096 


659'o 


40-60 ft 


70 ft 


509'o of dwelling 
units 


eS^ 


Wide Street- 


2.43 


809b 


609b 


40-55 ft 


65 ft 




Narrow Street 


2.2^ 


809o 


60 9o 


30-45 ft 


55 ft 



' Outside the Manhattan Core 

' Within the Manhattan Core 

^ 3.6 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus on a wide street; 2.42 FAR on a narrow street 

" Waived if 5 or fewer spaces required 



R6A 



R6A is a contextual district where tlie 
Quality Housing bull< regulations are 
mandatory. These regulations produce 
high lot coverage, six- or seven-story 
apartment buildings set at or near the 
street line. Designed to be compatible with 
older buildings found in medium-density 
neighborhoods, R6A districts are mapped 
in the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. Parts of 
Kingsbridge in the Bronx and Williamsburg 
in Brooklyn are typical R6A areas. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) in R6A districts 
is 3.0. Above a maximum base height of 

60 feet, the building must set back by at 
least 1 feet on a wide street and 1 5 feet 
on a narrow street before rising to its 
maximum height of 70 feet. To preserve 
the traditional streetscape, the street wall 
of a new building can be no closer to the 
street line than any building within 150 
feet on the same block, but need not be 
farther than 15 feet. The area between a 
building's street wall and the street line 
must be planted. R6A buildings must 
have interior amenities for the residents 
pursuant to the Quality Housing Program. 
Off-street parking, which is not allowed in 
front of a building, is required for 509b of a 
building's dwelling units, or can be waived 
if five or fewer spaces are required. 




Kingsbridge 










■ ■. -; te"s» ; ri : .-^'--sSSSiiasSS 


"."LrpKi^ 










'I 




^^ 


^..»ma^ 




FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Heigiit 

(max) 


Required Parl<ing 

(i"nin) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


3,0' 


809'o 


65% 

1 1 


40-60 ft 


70 ft 


50% of dwelling units 



3.6 FAR with Indusionary Housing designated area bonus 
Waived if 5 or fewer spaces required 




^&.w'^'' 


. 


^ 




mVL 




;' - ■■■' 


^n ^"#j 




M 


mm 


WVI'I^ 


Ml 


P^ 


•iv '.' T ^'*«iif! 


Rn 


"'^'^'^' "f.;^^ 


11 


\ 


W^ 


\1E 


hIps 


ajgi^^ ; _ ^ 



R6B 



Park Slope 



Bedford Stuyvesant 



R6B districts are often traditional row- 
iiouse districts, which preserve the scale 
and harmonious streetscape of neighbor- 
hoods of four-story attached buildings 
developed during the 19th century. Many 
of these houses are set back from the street 
with stoops and small front yards that are 
typical of Brooklyn's "brownstone" neigh- 
borhoods, such as Park Slope, Boerum Hill 
and Bedford Stuyvesant. 

The FAR of 2.0 and the mandatory Quality 
Housing regulations also accommodate 
apartment buildings at a similar four- to 
five-story scale. The base height of a new 
building before setback must be between 
30 and 40 feet; the maximum height is 
50 feet. Curb cuts are prohibited on zon- 
ing lot frontages less than 40 feet. The 
street wall of a new building, on any lot 
up to 50 feet wide, must be as deep as 
one adjacent street wall but no deeper 
than the other. Buildings must have inte- 
rior amenities for the residents pursuant 
to the Quality Housing Program. Off-street 
parking is required for 509'o of dwelling units. 
It is not allowed in front of a building. 




Park 5/op(? 











;^«^«;V:<KS:;i;4:-:;-.AS:>W.>;:; >-:*^^^ 






1 


1 


R6B General Residence District 


^ 




FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Height 

(max) 


Required Parking- 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


2.0' 


80% 


6096 


30-40 ft 


50 ft 


509& of dwelling units 



2.2 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus 
Waived if 5 or fewer spaces required 



R7-1 & R7-2 



K7 districts are medium-density apart- 
ment Inouse districts mapped in much 
of tlie Bronx as well as the Upper West 
Side in Manhattan and Brighton Beach in 
Brooklyn. The height factor regulations 
for R7 districts encourage lower apartment 
buildings on smaller zoning lots and, on 
larger lots, taller buildings with less lot 
coverage. As an alternative, developers 
may choose the optional Quality Housing 
regulations to build lower buildings with 
greater lot coverage. 

Regulations for residential development in 
R7-1 and R7-2 districts are essentially the 
same except that R7-2 districts, which are 
mapped primarily in upper Manhattan, have 
lower parking requirements. 

Height Factor Regulations 

Height factor buildings are often set back 
from the street and surrounded by open 
space and on-site parking. The floor area 
ratio (FAR) in R7 districts ranges from 
0.87 to a high of 3.44; the open space 
ratio (OSR) ranges from 15.5 to 25.5. As 
in other non-contextual districts, a taller 
building may be obtained by providing 
more open space. For example, 76% of the 
zoning lot with a 14-story building must 
be open space (3.44 FAR x 22.0 OSR). The 
maximum FAR is achievable only where the 
zoning lot is large enough to accommodate 
a practical building footprint as well as 
the required amount of open space. The 
building must be set within a sky exposure 
plane which, in R7 districts, begins at a 
height of 60 feet above the street line and 
then slopes inward over the zoning lot. 

In R7-1 districts, off-street parking is re- 
quired for 60% of the dwelling units, and 
can be waived if five or fewer spaces are 
required. In R7-2 districts, off-street parking 
is required for 50'!o of the units, andean be 
waived if 1 5 or fewer spaces are required. 








FAR 

(range) 


OSR Building 
(range) Height 


Required Parking' 

(min) 


0.87-3.44 


15.5-25.5 


Governed by sky exposure plane 


R7-1 : 60% of dwelling units 
R7-2; 509b of dwelling units 



0/1 zoniDg lot 10,000 square feet or less, 30% in R7-I districts and waived in R7-2 districts; on zoning lot between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet, 30% in 
9.7-2 districts. In R7- 1 districts, waived if 5 or fewer spaces required: in R7-2 districts, waived if 15 or fewer spaces required 




R7-1 & R7-2 



Quality Housing Regulations 

The optional Quality Housing regulations 
in R7 districts utilize heiglit limits to pro- 
duce lower, high lot coverage buildings 
set at or near the street line. With floor 
area ratios that are equal to or greater 
than can be achieved in height factor 
buildings, the optional Quality Housing 
regulations produce new buildings in 
keeping with the scale of many traditional 
neighborhoods in the East Village and 
upper Manhattan, the west Bronx, and 
sections of Queens and Brooklyn. 
The optional Quality Housing regulations 
for buildings on wide streets outside the 
Manhattan Core are the same as in R7A 
districts. The maximum FAR is 4.0 and the 
base height before setback is 40 to 65 
feet with a maximum building height of 
80 feet. The maximum FAR on narrow 
streets and within the Manhattan Core is 
3.44, and the base height before setback 
is 40 to 60 feet with a maximum build- 
ing height of 75 feet. The area between 
a building's street wall and the street line 
must be planted, and the building must 
have interior amenities for residents pur- 
suant to the Quality Housing Program. 
Off-street parking is required for 50% of 
all dwelling units. 





0iii jjill 





















1 






. __^_ ^_-_ ■ — j 






FAR' 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max; 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Height 

(max) 


Required Parking' 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


Wide Street' 


4.0 


809o 


65% 


40-65 ft 


80 ft 


50% of 
dwelling units 


Narrow Street^ 


3.44 


40-60 ft 


75 ft 



Outiide the Manhattan Core 

Includes wide streets within the Manhattan Core 

4.6 with Indusionary Housing designated area bonus on a wide street in an R7-2 district: 3.6 on a narrow street 

On zoning lot 10,000 square feet or less, 30% in R7-1 districts and waived in R7-2 districts; on zoning lot between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet, 30% in R7-2 

districts. In R7- 1 'districts, waived if 5 or fewer spaces required; in R7-2 districts, waived if 15 or fewer spaces required 



The contextual Quality Homing bulk 
regulations, which are mandatory in 
R7A districts, typically produce high lot 
coverage, seven- and eight-story apart- 
ment buildings, blending with existing 
buildings in many established neighbor- 
hoods. R7A districts are mapped along 
Prospect Park South and Ocean Parkway 
in Brooklyn, Jackson Heights in Queens, 
and in Harlem and along the avenues in 
the East Village in Manhattan. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) in R7A 

districts is 4.0. Above a base Iteight 

of 40 to 65 feet, the building must set 
back to a depth of 10 feet on a wide 
street and 15 feet on a narrow street 

before rising to a maximum height of 
80 feet. In order to preserve the tradi- 
tional streetscape, the street wall of a 
new building can be no closer to the 
street line than any building within ISO 
feet on the same block, but need not 
be farther than 15 feet. Buildings must 
have interior amenities for the residents 
pursuantto the Quality Housing Program. 
Off-street parking is not allowed in front 
of a building. Parking is required for 5096 
of all dwelling units. 




Jackson Heights 







r 



FAR 

(max) 



4.0' 



Lot Coverage (max) 



Corner Lot 



80°b 



Interior/Through Lot 



65" 



Base Height 

(min/max) 



40-65 ft 



Building Height 

(max) 



80 ft 



' 4.6 FAR with Indusionary Housing designated area bonus 

^ 30% if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less; waived if IS or fewer spaces required 



Required Parl<ing 

(min) 



50% of dwelling units 







R7B 



In contextual R7B districts, the manda- 
tory Quality Housing regulations are 
similar to those of R6B districts but the 
higher floor area ratio (FAR) and height 
limit generally produce six- to seven-story 
apartment buildings rather than the row- 
houses typical of R6B districts. There are 
R7B districts in Brooklyn and throughout 
Queens, including portions of Rego Park. 
Parts of the East Village in Manhattan are 
also mapped R7B. 

The FAR is 3.0; the base height of a new 
building before setback must be between 
40 and 60 feet before rising to a maximum 
building height of 75 feet. To maintain 
the traditional streetscape, curb cuts are 
prohibited on zoning lotfrontages less than 
40 feet. The front wall of a new building, 
on any lot up to 50 feet wide, must be as 
deep as one adjacent front wall but no 
deeper than the other. On lots 50 feet wide 
or more, the front wall must be no closer 
to the street line than the front wall of an 
adjacent building. Front walls need not be 
set back beyond 1 5 feet. 
Buildings must have interior amenities for 
residents pursuant to the Quality Housing 
Program. 

Off-street parking is not allowed in front of 
a building. Parking is required for 509b of 
dwelling units. 




Rego Park 







FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Heiglit 

(max) 


Required Parking 

(min) 




Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


..,.: 


3.0 


809b 


659b 


40-60 ft 


75 ft 


509-b of dwelling units 



Waived if S or fewer spaces required 



R7D 



R7D districts promote new contextual 
development along transit corridors. 
Portions of Fulton Street and the Special 
Coney Island District in Brooklyn are 
mapped as R7D districts. Blocks that are 
mapped C4-5D have an R7D residential 
diitrict equivalent. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) of 4.2 allows 
greater residential density than R7A 
districts and less than R7X districts. In 
a C4-5D district or when a commercial 
overlay is mapped in an R7D district, 
the ground floor of a building must be 
reserved for retail uses, such as shops 
and services, to maintain the vitality of 
the street. 

Quality Housing bulk regulations, man- 
datory in R7D districts, produce ten-story 
buildings set at or near the street line. 
The base height of a new building must 
be 60 to 85 feet before setback, rising to 
a maximum building height of 100 feet. 
In order to maintain the continuity of the 
street wall, a new building can be no 
closer to the street line than any other 
building within 1 50 feet on the same block 
but need not be farther than 1 5 feet. In 
commercial overlay districts or in a C4-5D 
district, the street wall of a building on a 
wide street must extend along the entire 
width of the zoning lot at the street line. 
Interior amenities for building residents 
pursuant to the Quality Housing Program 
are required. 

Off-street parking is required for 50 per- 
cent of dwelling units. 






m^ 


FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Biiikiing Height 
(max) 


Required Parl<ing'^ 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


\iimm 


4.2' 


80f!;i 


65% 


60-85 ft 


100 ft 


50ro of dwelling units 



5.6 F.AR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonui 

30% if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less; waived if 15 or fewer spaces required 




R7X 



R7X districts are also governed by contex- 
tual Quality Housing bulk regulations but 
the substantially higher floor area ratio 

(FAR) and maximum building height typi- 
cally produce taller, bulkier buildings than 
in R7A and R7B districts. The flexibility of 
the R7X regulations is exemplified by the 
nine- to 13-story apartment buildings in 
the R7X districts mapped along major 
thoroughfares in Harlem in Manhattan 
and Jackson Avenue in Long Island City 
in Queens. 

The FAR in R7X districts is 5.0. Above a 
base height of 60 to 85 feet, the building 
must be set back a depth of 10 feet on 
a wide street and 15 feet on a narrow 
street before rising to its maximum height 
of 125 feet. To maintain the traditional 
streetscape, the rtreetivoHof a new build- 
ing can be no closer to the street line than 
any building within 150 feet on the same 
block but need not be farther than 1 5 feet. 
The building must have interior ameni- 
ties for residents pursuant to the Quality 
Housing Program. 

Off-street parking is required for SOTb of 
dwelling units. It is not allowed in front 
of a building. 




Harlem 







FAR 
(max) 


Lot Coverage (mn.x) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


guiSding Height 

(max) 


Required Parl<ing 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


5.0' 


8096 


70% 


60-85 ft 


125 ft 


5010 of dwelling units 



1 5.0 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus 

' 30% if zoning lot is 10,000 sf or less; waived if 15 or fewer spaces required 




Apartment buildings in R8 districts 
can range from mid-rise, eight- to ten- 
story buildings to much taller build- 
ings set back from the street on large 
zoning lots. This high density residen- 
tial district is mapped along the Grand 
Concourse in the Bronx and on the edge 
of Brooklyn Heights. R8 districts are also 
widely mapped in Manhattan neighbor- 
hoods, such as Washington Heights. 
New buildings in R8 districts may be de- 
veloped under either height factor regu- 
lations or the optional Quality Housing 
regulations that often reflect the older, 
pre-1961 neighborhood streetscape. 

Height Factor Regulations 

The floor area ratio (FAR) for height fac- 
tor development in R8 districts ranges from 
0.94 to 6.02; the open space ratio (OSR) 

ranges from 5.9 to 11.9. A taller build- 
ing may be obtained by providing more 
open space. In the diagram, for example, 
64% of the zoning lot with the 17-story 
building must be open space (6.02 FAR x 
10.7 OSR). Thus, the maximum FAR is 
achievable only where the zoning lot is 
large enough to accommodate a practical 
building footprint as well as the required 
amount of open space. There are no ab- 
solute height limits; the building must be 
set within a sky exposure plane which, 
in R8 districts, begins at a height of 85 
feet above the street line and then slopes 
inward over the zoning lot. 

Off-street parking is required for only 40'!o 
of dwelling units since these districts are 
easily accessed by mass transit. It can be 
waived if 15 or fewer parking spaces are 
required or if the zoning lot is 10,000 
square feet or less. 




Brooklyn Heights 








FAR 

(range) 


OSR 

(range) 


Building 
Height 


Required Parking' 

(min) 


0.94-6.02 


5.9-11.9 


Governed by sky exposure plane 


40% of dwelling units 



201:1 if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot Is 10,000 square feet or less, or If 15 or fewer spaces required 





Downtown Brooklyn 




Quality Housing Regulations 

The optional Quality Housing regulations 
in R8 districts utilize height limits to pro- 
duce lower, high lot coverage buildings 
set at or near the street line. With floor 
area ratios (FAR) equal to or greater than 
can be achieved using R8 height factor 
regulations, the optional Quality Housing 
regulations produce new buildings in 
keeping with many of the city's established 
neighborhoods. 

The maximum FAR is 6.02, and the base 
height before setback is 60 to 80 feet 
with a maximum building height of 
105 feet. On wide streets outside the 
Manhattan Core, the FAR rises to 7.2, and 
the base height before setback is 60 to 85 
feet with a maximum building height of 
120 feet. The street wall of the building 
must extend along the width of the zoning 
lot and at least 70% of the street wall must 
be within eight feet of the street line. 
The area between a building's street wall 
and the street line must be planted and 
the building must have interior ameni- 
ties for residents pursuant to the Quality 
Housing Program. 

Off-street parking requirements are the 
same as for height factor buildings; 40% 
of the dwelling units. 




Cm'ii;)i/ Concourse 









FAS 
(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base 
Heiglit 

(min/max) 


Building 
Height 

(max) 


Required 
Parking' 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


w 


Wide Street' 


7.2 


80% 


709 b 


60-85 ft 


120ft 


4090 of 
dwelling units 


HP 


Narrow Street' 


6.02 


60-80 ft 


105ft 



I Outside the Manhattan Core 

' Includes wide streets within the Manhattan Core 

- 7.2 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus 

< 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if IS or fewer spaces required 



R8A 



The contextual Quality Housing bulk regu- 
lations, which are mandatory in R8A dis- 
tricts, typically result in high lot coverage 

1 0- to 1 2-story apartment buildings, set at 
or near the street line. Limitations on the 
base height and maximum building height 
of new buildings ensure compatability with 
existing buildings on the street. Parts of 
DUMBO in Brooklyn and West Chelsea in 
Manhattan are R8A districts. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) in R8A districts 
is 6.02. Above a base height of 60 to 85 

feet, the building must set back to a depth 
of 1 feet on a wide street and 1 5 feet on a 
narrow street before rising to its maximum 
height of 120 feet. On a wide street, the 
street wall must extend along the entire 
width of the zoning lot and at least 70% 
of the street wall must be within eight feet 
of the street line. 

The area between a building's street wall 
and the street line must be planted and the 
building must have interior amenities pur- 
suant to the Quality Housing Program. 

Off-street parking is not allowed in front 
of a building. Parking is required for 40';() 
of dwelling units. 




Downtown BrooLlin 





FAR 

(max) 



6.02' 



Lot Coverage (max) 



Corner Lot 



809o 



Interior/Through Lot 



70% 



Base Height 

(min/max) 



60-85 ft 



Building Height 

(max) 



120 ft 



Required Parking^ 

(min) 



40<;6 of dwelling units 



' 7.2 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus 

^ 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 




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Upper East Side 



Upper We it Side 




R8B contextual districts usually present 
the same unified blocks of "brownstone" 
rowlnouses as R5B and R6B districts but 
the higher floor area ratio (FAR) of 4.0 
creates a taller building that is commonly 
found on the narrow side streets of the 
Upper West Side and the Upper East Side 
in Manhattan. The mandatory Quality 
Housing bulk regulations encourage new 
six-story apartment buildings, with a set- 
back at the top story, that fit in well with 
the rows of 19"' century houses. 

The base height of a new building before 
a setback is 55 to 60 feet. The maximum 
building height is 75 feet. Many buildings 
are set back from the street with stoops in 
shallow front yards. To maintain the tradi- 
tional streetscape, curb cuts are prohibited 
for zoning lot frontages less than 40 feet. 
The street wall of a new building, on any 
lot up to 50 feet wide, must be as deep as 
one adjacent street wall but no deeper than 
the other. On lots with at least 50 feet of 
frontage, the street wall must be no closer 
to the street line than the street wall of an 
adjacent building. Street walls need not be 
set back beyond 15 feet. Buildings must 
have interior amenities for residents pursu- 
ant to the Quality Housing Program. 

Off-street parking is not allowed in front 
of a building and any open area between 
the street wall and the street line must be 
planted. Parking is required for 50'-)o of 
dwelling units, and can be waived if 1 5 or 
fewer parking spaces are required or if the 
zoning lot is 1 0,000 square feet or less. In 
Brooklyn, however, parking is required for 
40% of dwelling units, and parking waivers 
are not allowed. 







FAK 
(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building Heiglit 

(max) 


Required Parl^ing 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


4.0 


809!) 


70 9 G 


55-60 ft 


75 ft 


509i) of dwelling units' 



40'-*,i //) BfooA'/yn 



R8X 



R8X contextual districts are governed 
by Quality Housing bulk regulations. 
R8X districts are similar to R8A districts 
but permit a higher building height 
that typically produces 14- to 16-story 
apartment buildings that replicate the 
building envelope of the older, traditional 
buildings in Prospect Heights and Park 
Slope that surround Grand Army Plaza. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) in R8X districts 
is 6.02. Above a base height of 60 to 85 

feet, the building must set back to a depth 
of 1 feet on a wide street and 1 5 feet on a 
norroivjtreet before rising to a maximum 
building height of 150 feet. As in R8A 
districts, the street wall on a wide street 
must extend along the entire width of the 
zoning lot and at least 70% of the street 
wall must be within eight feet of the street 
line. Buildings must have interior amenities 
for residents pursuant to the Quality Housing 
Program. 

Off-street parking is not allowed in front of 
a building. Parking is required for 409'o of 
dwelling units, and it can be waived if 15 or 
fewer spaces are required or if the zoning 
lot is 10,000 square feet or less. 








FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base Height 

(min/max) 


Building IHeight 

(max) 


Required Pariiing 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


6.02 


80^0 


70" i) 


60-85 ft 


150ft 


409b of dwelling units 



20'?o if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet: waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required, except in Brooklyn 




In R9 districts, which are mapped 
along several major thoroughfares in 
Manhattan, such as West 96"' Street, new 
buildings can be developed under height 
factor regulations or the optional Quality 
Housing regulations as in R6 through R8 
districts. The optional Quality Housing 
regulations in R9 districts are the same 
as the R9A regulations. Designed in part 
for institutional purposes (mainly hospi- 
tals), most R9 height factor buildings are 
developed pursuant to the tower rules, 
which are applicable only in the city's 
higher-density areas, and commercial 
districts with an R9 residential district 
equivalent {a -8, C2-7 and C6-3). 

R9 Height Factor/Tower 
Regulations 

The floor area ratio (FAR) for height 
factor/tower buildings ranges from 0.99 
to 7.52 and the open space ratio (05R) 

from 1 .0 to 9.0. As in other height factor 
districts, a taller building can usually be 
developed by providing more open space. 
Under the tower rules, however, build- 
ings on both wide and narrow streets are 
permitted to penetrate the sky exposure 
plane. In the diagram, for example, build- 
ings that front on a wideitreet must have 
a contextual street wall of 60 to 85 feet 
with a tower above (tower-on-a-base). 
The height of the tower is controlled by 
a minimum lot coverage requirement 
and a rule that at least SS'J'o of the floor 
area on the zoning lot be located below a 
height of 150 feet. For buildings with only 
nori-ow Jtreet frontage, a contextual base 
is not required and towers are permitted, 
provided they are set back from the street 
line at least 15 feet. 

Off-street parking is not required for any 
development in the Manhattan Core or 

Long Island City. Elsewhere, parking is 
required for 4090 of dwelling units. 







FAR Range 


OSR Range 


Tower Height 


Required Parking (min) 


0.99-7.52' 


1.0-9.0 


Governed by lot coverage and open space requirements 


409() of dwelling units- 



8.0 FAR with Inclusionary Homing designated area bonus 

Waived in Manhattan Core and Long Island City 

20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 



R9A 



The contextual Quality Housing regula- 
tions, mandatory in R9A districts, typi- 
cally result in high lot coverage, 14- to 
15-story buildings set at or near the street 
line. Typical R9A buildings can be found 
in higher density Manhattan neighbor- 
hoods such as Chelsea and Tribeca. Often 
mapped as C1-8A or C2-7A commercial 
districts, which have an R9A residential 
district equivalent, these districts usually 
have apartments above one or two floors 
of retail and office uses. 

The maximum floor area ratio (FAR) 
in R9A districts is 7.52, the same as in 
R9 districts. On wide streets, the base 
height is 60 to102 feet with a maximum 
building height of 145 feet. On narrow 
streets, the base height is 60 to 95 feet 
with a maximum building height of 135 
feet. The street wall of a new building on 
a wide street must extend along the entire 
width of the zoning lot and at least ZOb 
of the street wall must be within eight feet 
of the street line. 

The area between a building's street wall 
and the street line must be planted and the 
building must have interior amenities for 
residents pursuant to the Quality Housing 
Program. 

Off-street parking is not required for any 
development in the Manhattan Core or in 

Long Island City in Queens. Elsewhere, park- 
ing is required for 40'!(i of dwelling units. 












'i 


ifP^ 








.^"m 


^^^^i. 






FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base 
Height 

(min/max) 


Building 
Height 

(max) 


Required Parking 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


Wide Street 


7.52' 


80<!b 


70% 


60-102 ft 


145ft 


40';o of dwelling 
units" 


Narrow Street 


60-95 ft 


135 ft 



8.5 FAR with Inclusionary Housing designated area bonus 

Waived in Manhattan Core and Long isiand City 

20% if zoning iot is between 10,001 and IS, 000 square feet; waived if zoning tot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 



R9D 




Created to accommodate towers facing 
elevated rail lines, R9D districts produce 
tall buildings set back from the street line 
to minimize train noise for occupants of the 
buildings and maximize light and air for 
pedestrians at street level. Portions of the 
River Avenue corridor around 161" Street 
in the Bronx are mapped C6-3D which has 
an R9D residential district equivalent. 

The tower portion of the building must be 
set back at least 20 feet from the street line 
when facing an elevated rail line. In C6-3D 
districts, the tower must rise above a low 
base set at the street line that is between 1 5 
and 25 feet high. A setback is not required 
when a building wall is within 70 feet of a 
street intersection. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) is 9.0. There 
is no maximum building height in an R9D 
district but special rules control the width 
of towers and ensure articulated tower 
tops for the highest four stories or that 
portion of the building above 1 65 feet, 
whichever is less. 

In C6-3D districts or when a commercial 
overlay is mapped in an R9D district, 
the ground floor of a building must be 
reserved for retail and service uses in 
order to maintain a lively streetscape. 
Sidewalks adjacent to wide streets or 
elevated rail lines must have a minimum 
depth of 20 feet. 

Buildings must have interior amenities 
for residents pursuant to the Quality 
Housing Program. 

Off-street parking is required for at least 
409fa of dwelling units. 



Facing 
Elevated Rail 



Facing Other 
Streets 



FAR 

(max) 



9.0' 



Lot Coverage (max) 



Corner Lot 



80'-!b 



Interior/Through Lot 



70% 



Base 
Height 

(min/max) 



15-25 ft 



60-85 ft 



Tower Lot 
Coverage 

(min/max) 



33-40% 



Required 
Parlting- 

(min) 



40^0 of 

dwelling 

units 



10.0 PAR with Indusionary Housing designated area bonus m 000 sauare feet or less or if IS or fewer spaces required 

20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10.000 square tett less. 




R9X contextual districts (and CI -8X, C2-7X 
and C6-3X districts witli an R9X residen 
tial district equivalent), mapped only 
in Manhattan, are governed by Quality 
Housing regulations. With a floor area 
ratio (FAR) and height limit substantially 
higher than other R9 districts, R9X regu- 
lations produce the taller, bulkier 16- to 
1 8-story apartment buildings characteristic 
of Chelsea and Murray Hill in Manhattan. 

The FAR in R9X districts is 9.0. On a wide 
street, the base height of a new build- 
ing must be 1 05 to 1 20 feet with a 1 
foot setback before rising to a maximum 
height of 1 70 feet. On a wide street, the 
street wall must extend along the entire 
width of the zoning lot and at least 70% 
of the street wall must be within eight feet 
of the street line. On a narrow street, 
the base height must be 60 to 120 feet 
with a 15-foot setback before rising to a 
maximum height of 1 60 feet. 

Off-street parking is not required for any 
development in the Manhattan Core. 

Elsewhere, parking is required for 40% of 
the dwelling units. 



Chelsea 











Waived in Manila 




FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base 
Heiglit 

(min/max) 


Building 
Height 

(max) 


Required Parking' 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


Wide Street 


9.0 


80«b 


70% 


105-120 ft 


1 70 ft 


40% of 
dwelling units- 


Narrow Street 
ttan Core 


60-120 ft 


160 ft 



' 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoninq lot is 



zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if IS or fewer 



spaces required 




Wide Street 



Narrow Street 



FAR 

(max) 



10.0' 



Lot coverage (max) 



Corner Lot 



1009'o 



Interior/Through Lot 



709b 



RIO 



RIO districts are mapped along portions 
of Fifth and Park Avenues in Manhattan; 
however, most buildings that conform 
to the RIO building envelope are found 
in commercial districts with a residential 
district equivalent of RIO, the highest 
residential density in the city. Much of 
Midtown, Lower Manhattan and major 
avenues in Manhattan, as well as parts of 
Downtown Brooklyn and Long Island City, 
are mapped at R1 density. The floor atea 
ratio (FAR) is 1 0.0. Developers may choose 
between Quality Housing regulations or 
tower regulations; height factor regula- 
tions are not applicable. 

Residential and mixed buildings can 

receive a residential floor area bonus for 
the creation or preservation of affordable 
housing, pursuant to the Inclusionary 
Housing Program. 

Off-street parking is not required in the 
Manhattan Core, Long Island City or por- 
tions of Downtown Brooklyn. Elsewhere, 
parking is required for at least 40% of 

dwelling units. 

Quality Housing Regulations 

Quality Housing contextual regulations 
(the same as for RIOA Districts) produce 
large, high lot coverage buildings set at 
or near the street line which maintain the 
traditional high street wall found along 
major streets and avenues. On wide 
streets, the base height before setback is 
1 25 to 1 50 feet with a maximum building 
height of 21 feet. On narrow streets, in 
order to ensure more light and air at street 
level, the base height before setback is 60 
to 1 25 feet. The maximum building height 
is 1 85 feet. Interior amenities for residents 
are mandatory pursuant to the Quality 
Housing Program. 



Base 
Height 

(min/max) 



125ft-150ft 



60ft^l25ft 



Building 
Height 

(max) 



210 ft 



185ft 



Required 
Parl<ing 

(min) 



4096 

of dwelling 

units' 



' Commeiaal dhUicH wUh an RIO residential district equivalent arc Cl-9, C2-8, C4-6, C4-7, CS, C6-4, C6-S, C6-6, C6-7, C6-8 and C6-9 

' Up to 12.0 FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 

' Waived in Manhattan Core and Long Island City 

* 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 



Tower-on-a-Base Regulations 

Tower regulations allow a building to pen- 
etrate the sky exposure plane, which re- 
sults in buildings taller than those allowed 
under Quality Housing regulations. 
Most avenues on the Upper East Side of 
Manhattan are mapped as RIO districts, 
(or CI -9 and C2-8 districts which have a 
residential district equivalent of RIO 
and are predominantly residential districts 
that permit ground level retail uses). 

A tower-on-a-base is the only type of 
tower that can be built on a wide street in 
an Rl 0, CI -9 or C2-8 district; the building 
envelope of a contextual base topped by 
a tower portion ensures compatibility with 
existing buildings along these avenues. The 
height of the base is between 60 and 85 
feet. On a wide street, the street wall must 
extend continuously along the Jlreet/ine. 
On a narrow street, the open area between 
the street wall and the street line must be 
planted. The tower portion must be set 
back at least 1 feet from a wide street and 
15 feet from a narrow street, and the lot 
coverage must be between 30% and 40%. 
The height of the tower is controlled by a 
distribution rule, which requires at least 
55% of the floor area on the zoning lot to 
be located below a height of 150 feet. 




FAR 

(max) 



ICG- 



Base Height 

(min/max) 



60-85 ft 



Tower Lot Coverage 

(min/max) 



30%-40%^ 



Required Parl<ing' 

(min) 



4096 of dwelling units^ 



' Commercial districts witli an RIO residential district equivalent arc €1-9, C2-S, C4-6, C4-7, CS, C6-4, C6-S, C6-6, C6-7, C6-S and C6-9 

^ Up to 12.0 FAR v/ith Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 

^ Up to 50% for a zoning lot smaller than 20,000 square feet 

* Waived in Manhattan Core and Long Island City 

^ 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square Sect or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 




Tower Regulations 

Tower regulations allow a building to 
penetrate the sky exposure plane, which 
results in buildings taller than those allowed 
under Quality Housing regulations. Most 
of midtown and Lower Manhattan are 
mapped Rl districts or high density com- 
mercial districts with an RIO residential 
district equivalent. 

Standard towers, which do not require a 
base, are permitted only on narrow streets 

n RIO, CI -9 and C2-8 districts, and on 
both wide and narrow streets in primarily 
commercial districts (C4-6, C4-7, C5, C6-4, 
C6-3, C6-6, C6-7, C6-8, C6-9). The tower 
footprint may cover no more than 40"o of 
the area of the zoning lot, or up to 50Sb on 
lots smallerthan 20,000 square feet. Like a 
tower-on-a-base, a standard tower must be 
set back from the street line at least 1 feet 
on a wide street, and 1 5 feet on a narrow 
street. Unlike a tower-on-a-base, there is no 
minimum lot coverage requirement and 
no rule regarding distribution of floor area. 

n mixed buildings, a floor area bonus of 
up to 20% can be achieved by providing a 
public plaza. Together, these regulations 
produce the tallest residential buildings 
in the city. 



(llldX) 



10.0' 



Tower Lot Coverage 

(max) 



40%^ 



Required Parking 

(min) 



40'7oof dwelling units* 



' Commercial district with an RIO residential district equivalent are €1-9, C2-S, C4-6, C4-7, CS, C6-4, C6-S, C6-6, C6-7, C6-8 and C6-9 

' Up to 12.0 FAR with Indusionary Housing Program or public plaza bonus 

' Up to 50% on zoning lots smaller than 20,000 square feet 

" Waived in Manhattan Core, Long Island City and Downtown Brooklyn, as applicable 

5 20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if 15 or fewer spaces required 



R10A 



The Quality Housing contextual regula- 
tions, mandatory in R1 OA districts, typically 
produce the substantial apartment build- 
ings set on the avenues and wide streets 
of Manhattan, such as West End Avenue 
and Broadway on the Upper West Side. 
Commercial districts which are RIOA 
residential district equivalents, such as 
C4-6A districts on Broadway and C2-8A 
districts on some blocks of East 95'" Street, 
are lined with large apartment houses with 
street level stores. Towers are not permit- 
ted in RIOA districts. 

Typical new buildings are 22-story apart- 
ment buildings with high lot coverage 
and street walls set at or near the street 
line. The floor area ratio (FAR) is 1 0.0. 
Residential and mixed buildings can 
receive a residential floor area bonus for 
the creation or preservation of affordable 
housing, on-site or off-site, pursuant to 
the Inclusionary Housing Program. The 
maximum base height before setback, 
which is 150 feet within lOOfeet of a wide 
street and 125 feet on a narrow street, 
is designed to match the height of many 
older apartment buildings. Above the base 
height, the required minimum setback is 
10 feet on a wide street and 15 feet on a 
narrow street. The maximum height of a 
building is 210 feet within 100 feet of a 
wide street and 1 85 feet beyond 1 00 feet 
of a wide street. 

Off-street parking is not required in the 
Manhattan Core. Elsewhere, it is required 
for 409b of the dwelling units. 








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FAR 

(max) 


Lot coverage (max) 


Base 
Heigiit 

(min/max) 


Building 
Heigiit 

(max) 


Required 
Parlcing 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


Wide Street 


1 0.0- 


100% 




125ft-150ft 


210 ft 


409b 

of dwelling 

units' 


Narrow Street 






60ft-125ft 


185ft 



' Commercial districts witli an RWA residential district equivalent are C1-9A, C2-8A, C4-6A, C4-7A, CS-IA, C5-2A and C6-4A 
^ Up to 12.0 FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 
' Waived in Manhattan Core 
20% if zoning lot is between 10,001 and 15,000 square feet; waived if zoning lot is 10,000 square feet or less, or if IS or fewer spaces required 




R10X districts, and C6-4X districts 
which have an R10X residential 
district equivalent, are subject to Quality 
Housing regulations but instead of a maxi- 
mum height, the portion of the building 
above the required setback is subject 
to tower regulations. A C6-4X district is 
mapped along Sixth Avenue in Chelsea. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) of 10.0 may 
be increased to 12.0 if affordable housing 
is provided pursuant to the Inclusionary 
Housing Program or, for a mixed build- 
ing, if a public plaza is provided along a 
narrow street. Public plazas are permit- 
ted only in buildings with a commercial or 
community facility base. The building base 
must be between 60 and 85 feet high and 
extend along the entire frontage of a wide 
street. A tower is permitted above 83 feet 
provided it is set back at least 1 feet from 
a wide street and at least 15 feet from a 
narrow street. To prevent excessively tall 
and narrow towers, a tower must have a 
minimum lot coverage of 339o. 

Off-street parking is not required. 




Cheliea 









FAR 

(max) 


Lot Coverage (max) 


Base 
Heiglit 

(min/max) 


Tower Lot 
Coverage 

(min/max) 


Required 
Parl<ing 

(min) 


Corner Lot 


Interior/Through Lot 


10.0' 


100% 


zc?;) 


60 ft-85 ft 


33%-40<!b 


— 



Up to 



12 FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program or public plaza Imuis 




Midtown Manhattan 



Chapter 4 

Commercial Districts 



Commercial activities in the city are permit- 
ted in eight commercial districts based on 
their functional similarities and locational 
requirements. Small retail and service shops in CI 
and C2 districts serve the immediate needs of sur- 
rounding residential communities. Larger stores 
with more goods and services are found in C4 
districts, which are borough-wide regional retail 
centers such as Main Street in Flushing and Fordham 
Road in the Bronx. C5 and C6 districts, central 
business districts that serve the city, the region 
and the nation, are mapped in Midtown, Lower 
Manhattan, Downtown Brooklyn, Long Island City 
and Downtown Jamaica. Three districts serve spe- 
cific purposes: C3 for waterfront recreation, C7 for 
amusement parks and C8 for heavy repair shops and 
automotive uses. Some uses, such as movie drive-ins, 
are allowed only by special permit. 

All of the commercial uses permitted in the eight 
basic commercial districts are listed in Use Group's 5 
through 16. Use groups are assigned to specific com- 
mercial districts according to the purpose of the 
district, the impacts of the use and its compatibility 
with other uses. Residential uses (Use Groups 1 
and 2) and community facilities (Use Groups 3 and 
4) are allowed in all CI through C6 districts but are 
prohibited in C7 (amusement) districts. Residential 
uses and Use Group 3 community facilities are also 
prohibited in C8 (repair/service) districts. 

Commercial districts are subdivided (as indicated 
by a numerical suffix) to reflect variations in bulk, 
parking and loading requirements. The floor area 
ratio (FAR) for a C4-1 district, for example, is 
1.0 while the FAR for a C4-7 district is 10.0. (In 
medium- and high-density commercial districts, 
public plazas, pedestrian amenities and, by special 
permit, subway improvements, can generate an 
FAR bonus.) Front and side yards are not required 



in commercial districts; the required rear yard must 
be at least 20 feet deep. 

In addition to the floor area rules, height and setback 
requirements ensure that adequate light, air and 
open space are provided. In non-contextual districts, 
the height of a building is controlled by a sky expo- 
sure plane or, in the highest density districts, by 
tower regulations. In contextual districts, specific 
limits are set for both the height of a building and 
its base height before setback. 

In the high-density C5 and C6 commercial districts, 
the floor area ratio is the principal bulk control. In 
other commercial districts that are not as centrally 
located, high off-street parking requirements are 
frequently as important as the FAR in controlling 
the intensity of development. 

Contextual commercial districts are designated in 
areas that are substantially residential in character. 
In these districts, indicated by an A, D or X suffix, 
such as C4-2A, supplementary bulk regulations 
mandate that all developments maintain street 
wall continuity and a harmonious relationship 
with other buildings in the area. A floor area 
bonus is available in mixed buildings through the 
luclusionary Housing Program. 
CM through Cl-5 and C2-1 through C2-5 are 
commercial districts mapped as overlays in order to 
provide everyday retail services, usually within low- 
and medium-density residential neighborhoods. In 
these districts, commercial and community facility 
uses are governed by the commercial district overlay. 
In mixed buildings, commercial uses must be located 
below any residential use. 

Parking requirements vary depending upon the use 
and access to mass transit. Generally, the lower 
the numerical suffix, the more off-street parking is 
required. Parking is not required in the Manhattan 
Core or in Long Island City. 



CI &C2 Overlays 



Cl-l C1-2 Cl-3 C1-4 Cl-5 
C2-1 C2-2 C2-3 C2-4 C2-5 

Cl-l through Cl-5 and C2-1 through 
C2-5 districts are commercial over- 
lays mapped within residence districts. 
Mapped along streets that serve local 
retail needs, they are found extensively 
throughout the city's lower- and medium- 
density areas and occasionally in higher- 
density districts. 

Typical retail uses include neighborhood 
grocery stores, restaurants and beauty 
parlors. C2 districts permit a slightly 
wider range of uses, such as funeral homes 
and repair services. In mixed buildings, 
commercial uses are limited to one or two 
floors and must always be located below 
the residential use. 

When commercial overlays are mapped 
in Rl through R5 districts, the maximum 
commercial floor area ratio (FAR) is 

1.0; when mapped in R6 through RIO 
districts, the maximum commercial FAR 
is 2.0. Commercial buildings are subject 
to commercial bulk rules. 

Overlay districts differ from other com- 
mercial districts in that residential bulk 
is governed by the residence district 
within which the overlay is mapped. All 
other commercial districts that permit 
residential use are assigned a specific 
residential district equivalent. Unless 
otherwise indicated on the zoning maps, 
the depth of overlay districts ranges from 
100 to 200 feet. 

Generally, the lower the numerical suffix, 
the more off-street parking is required. For 
example, in Cl-l districts, typically mapped 
in outlying areas of the city, a large food 
store would require one parking space for 
every 1 00 square feet of floor area, whereas 
no parking is required in Cl-5 districts, 
which are well served by mass transit. 




Aslorla 



CI & C2 Commercial Overlay District 
Cl-l ci-2 cl-3 Cl-4 Cl-S < 



Commercial FAR within R1-R5 



Commercial FAR within R6-R10 



Depth of Overlay District (in feet) 



1.0 



2.0 



200 



1.0 



2.0 



150 



1.0 



2.0 



150 



1.0 



2.0 
100 



1.0 



2.0 



100 



1.0 



1.0 



2.0 



2.0 



150 



150 



1.0 
2.0 
150 



1.0 
2.0 
100 



1.0 
2.0 
100 



CI &C2 Overlays 




CI -2 

mapped within 




C2-4 

mapped withi 



CI &C2 



Cl-6 


C1-7 


C1-8 


C2-6 


C2-7 


C2-8 



CI -9 



Cl-6 through CI -9 and C2-6 through 
C2-8 districts are commercial districts 
that are predominantly residential in 
character. They are mapped along major 
thoroughfares in medium- and higher- 
density areas of the city, such as Second 
and Lexington Avenues on the Upper East 
Side or Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues 
on the Upper West Side. As in commercial 
overlay districts, typical retail uses include 
grocery stores, dry cleaners, drug stores, 
restaurants and local clothing stores that 
cater to the daily needs of the immediate 
neighborhood. There are only minor dif- 
ferences between CI and C2 districts, with 
a slightly wider range of uses permitted in 
C2 districts, such as funeral homes and 
local repair services. In mixed buildings, 
commercial uses are limited to one or two 
floors and must always be located below 
the residential use. 

The maximum commercial floor area 
ratio (FAR) is 2.0. Residential uses are 
governed by a specific residential district 

equivalent. For example, in CI -6 districts, 
the bulk regulations of R7 districts apply for 
residential uses, and in C2-8A districts, the 
bulk regulations of RIOA districts apply. 

Since these districts are usually mapped in 
areas well served by mass transit, off-street 
parking is generally not required. 








Lexington Avenue 



I Avenue 










CI 




















1 & C2 Commercial bisiricii^gg^ 






Cl-6 
C2-6 


C1-6A 
C2-6A 


Cl-7 C2-7 C1-7A C2-7A C2-7X Cl^ 


C2-8 Cl-^A C2-8A C1-«X Cl-9 C1-9A 


Commercial FAR 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


Residential FAR 


0.87-3.44' 


4.0'- 


0.94-6,02= 


0.99-7.52 


6.02< 


752> 


9.0 


0.99-7.52 


10.0' 


752 = 


10.0= 


9.0 


10.0' 


10,0= 


Residential District Equivalent 


R7 


R7A 


R8 


R9 


R8A 


R9A 


R9X 


R9 


RIO 


R9A 


RIOA 


R9X 


R10 


RIOA 



4.0 FAR on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
7.2 FAR on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
Increase in FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 



CI &C2 



Cl-7 

esidential district equivalent: R8) 




C2-7X 

(Residential district equivalent: R9X) 



C3 & C3A 



C3 and C3A districts permit waterfront 
recreational activities, primarily boating 
and fishing, in areas along the waterfront 
that are usually adjacent to residential 
districts. In addition to facilities for dock- 
ing, renting, servicing and storing fishing 
and pleasure boats, permitted activities 
include aquatic sports equipment sales 
and rentals, bicycle shops, ice cream 
stores and public and private beaches. 
These waterfront uses are listed in Use 
Croup 14. C3 and C3A districts also permit 
residences and community facilities (Use 
Croups 1-4). C3A districts are mapped in 
Staten Island and the Throgs Neck area of 
the Bronx. C3 districts are found on City 
Island and along Mill Basin in Brooklyn. 

The commercial floor area ratio (FAR) 

permitted in C3 districts is 0.5. Commercial 
buildings may be no more than two 
stories or 30 feet high, whichever is 
less. Residential development in C3 
districts is governed by R3-2 district 
regulations; in C3A districts, residential 
development is governed by R3A regula- 
tions which permit single- and two-family 
detached residences and zero lot line 
buildings. In a mixed building, com- 
mercial uses may occupy the ground 
floor only. 

Off-street parking requirements are high, 
but vary with the use. 




City Island 




'^ 



City Island 



Commercial FAR 



Residential FAR 



Residential District Equivalent 



FAR may be increased up to ZOli for attic allowanc 



C3 Commercial Districts 



0.5 



0.5' 



R3-2 



0.5 



0.5' 



R3A 



(Residential district equivalent: R3-2) 



C3 & C3A 




•^. ^ 




C3A 

(Residential district equivalent: R3A) 




C4 districts are mapped in regional com- 
mercial centers, such as Flushing in Queens 
and the Hub in the Bronx, that are located 
outside of the central business districts. 
In these areas, specialty and department 
stores, theaters and other commercial 
and office uses serve a larger region and 
generate more traffic than neighborhood 
shopping areas. Use Croups 5, 6, 8, 9, 1 
and 1 2, which include most retail establish- 
ments, are permitted in C4 districts. Uses 
that would interrupt the desired continuous 
retail frontage, such as home maintenance 
and repair service stores listed in Use 
Croup 7, are not allowed. 

C4 districts with an A, D or X suffix are 
contextual districts in which the com- 
mercial and residential fau/fc and density 
regulations can differ from corresponding 
non-contextual districts. Some districts 
have the same commercial and residential 
floor area ratios (FAR) as shown in the 
table, but may differ in parking require- 
ments. Floor area may be increased with 
a public plaza or Inclusionary Housing 
Program bonus. 

C4-1 districts are mapped in outlying areas, 
such as the Staten Island Mall, that require 
large amounts of parking. C4-2 through 
C4-5 districts are mapped in more densely 
built areas, such as Steinway Street in Astoria 
(C4-2A), Fordham Road (C4-4), and parts 
of Jamaica (C4-5X). C4-6 and C4-7 dis- 
tricts are mapped in densely built areas in 
Manhattan, including most of Broadway on 
the Upper West Side (C4-6A) and portions 
of central Harlem (C4-7). 

Off-street parking requirements vary with 
the district but, generally, the lower the 
numerical suffix, the higher the parking 
requirement. Parking is not required within 
the Manhattan Core or Long Island City. 




The Hub 




J 






P C4 Commercial Districts 














C4-1 


C4-2 
C4-3 


C4-2A C4-4 C4-4A 

C4-3A C4-S C4-5A C4-4D C4-5D 


C4-5X 


C4-6 


C4-6A 


C4-7 


C4-7A 


Commercial FAR 


1.0 


3.4 


3.0 


3.4 


4.0 


3.4 


4,2 


4.0 


3.4 


3.4 


10.0^ 


10.0 


Residential FAR 


1.25 


0.78-2.43''^ 


3.0^ 


0.87-3.44"-' 


4.0-' 


6.02-' 


3.44^" 


5,0^ 


10.0'^ 


10.0" 


10.0-''^ 


10.0^ 


Residential District 
Equivalent 

^ n CAD ^^r^^;tt^^ ^^ .... 


R5 


R6 


R6A 


R7 


R7A 


R8A 


R7D 


R7X 


RIO 


RIGA 


RIO 


RIOA 



7.2 FAR permitted on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
4.0 FAR permitted on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
Increase in FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 
FAR bonus up to 20% for a public plaza 




C4-6A 




C5 is a central commercial district with 
continuous retail frontage intended for of- 
fices and retail establishments that serve 
the entire metropolitan region. Famous 
shopping streets, such as Fifth Avenue, 
Madison Avenue and East 57th Street are 
C5 districts. Parts of Lower Manhattan, 
Downtown Brooklyn and Long Island City 
are also within C5 districts. 

Department stores, large office buildings, 
and mixed buildings with residential 
space above office or commercial floors, 
are typical C5 uses. Use Croups 5 (hotels), 
6, 9 and 10 (retail shops and business 
services) and 11 (custom manufacturing) 
are permitted in C5 districts. Home mainte- 
nance services, auto rental establishments 
and other uses not in character with the 
district, including illuminated signs, are 
not permitted. 

The maximum commercial floor area ra- 
tio (FAR) ranges from 4.0 to 15.0, and the 
maximum residential FAR is 10.0. Floor area 
may be increased by a bonus for a public 
plaza or Inclusionary Housing. 

In the two contextual C5 districts — C5-1 A 
and C5-2A — residential bulk and density 
are governed by Rl OA regulations. In non- 
contextual C5-2 through C5-5 districts, a 
building occupied by commercial, residen- 
tial and/or community facility uses may be 
configured as a tower A residential tower 
is also allowed in C5-1 districts. 

All commercial uses in C5 districts are 
exempt from off-street parking require- 
ments because public transportation is 
easily accessible. 










^ % M II 




' Hi i I ai 

"■■■■■■I 

I ■■ ■ ■ ?■ rl 

f!"!! ! 1 .£5 *■ 

k^ ai i I ia u 
*) BB I I ha )■ 



^jwETi'^sfT^ 






Rockefeller Center 



tad J/"' Street 





C5 Commercial Districts bHHHHBHHHH 




n 


iij| CS-IA C5-2 CS-4 C5-2A CS-3 C5-S 


Commercial FAR 


4.0 


4.0 


10.0' 


10.0 


15.0' 


Residential FAR^ 


10.0' 


10.0 


10.0' 


10.0 


10.0' 


Residential District Equivalent 


RIO 


RIGA 


RIO 


RIOA 


RIO 



FAR bonus up to 20% for a public plaza 

Increase in FAR with Irtclusionary Housing Program bonus 




C5-2 



C6 districts permit a wide range of high- 
bulk commercial uses requiring a central 
location. MostC6 districts are in Manhattan, 
Downtown Brooklyn and Downtown Jamaica; 
a C6-3D district is mapped in the Civic 
Center area of the Bronx. Corporate head- 
quarters, large hotels, department stores and 
entertainment facilities in high-rise mixed 
buildings are permitted in C6 districts. 

C6-1 , C6-2 and most C6-3 districts, typically 
mapped in areas outside central business 
cores, such as the Lower East Side and 
Chelsea, have a commercial floor area ratio 
(FAR) of 6.0; the C6-3D district has an FAR 
of 9.0. C6-4 through C6-9 districts, typically 
mapped within the city's major business dis- 
tricts, have a maximum FARof 10.0 or 15.0, 
exclusive of any applicable bonus. Floor area 
may be increased by a bonus for a public 
plaza or Inclusionary Housing. 

C6-2A, C6-3A, C6-3X and C6-4A are con- 
textual districts with maximum building 
heights. C6-3D and C6-4X districts allow 
towers above a building base; special rules 
determine the tower's height and articula- 
tion. All other C6 districts allow towers to 
penetrate a sky exposure plane and do 
not require a contextual base. 

C6 districts are widely mapped within spe- 
cial districts. C6-4.5, C6-5.5, C6-6.5 and 
C6-7T districts are mapped only within the 
Special Midtown District and have unique 
floor area ratios and bonus rules. C6-1C, 
C6-2G, C6-2M and C6-4M districts are 
mapped in Chinatown and Chelsea and 
in the Special Garment Center District, 
and have rules for the conversion of non- 
residential space to residential use. 

C6 districts are well served by mass transit, 
and off-street parking is generally not re- 
quired, except within the C6-3D district. 




Midtown 



C6 Commercial Districts 


^^^^^H C6-1 


C6-1A 


C6-2 


C6-2A C6-3 C6-3A C6-3D C6-3X C6-4 C6^A C6-4X C6-5 C6-« C6-7 C6-8 C6-9 


Commercial FAR 


6,0 ■ 


6.0' 


6.0* 


6.0 


6.0' 


6,0 


9.0 


6.0 


10.0' 


10.0 


10,0' 


10.0' 


15.0' 


1.5.0' 


10,0' 15.0' 


Residential FAR 


0.87-3.44' 


0.78-2.43^5 


0.94-6. 02''5 


6.02= 


0.99-7.52^ 


7.52' 


9.0'- 


9.0 


10.0«5 


10.0* 


10. 0* 


10.0'5 


10.0* 


lO.O- 


10.0'* 


10.0* 


Residential 
District Equivalent 


R7 


R6 


R8 


R8A 


R9 


R9A 


R9D 


R9X 


RIO 


RIOA 


RlOX 


RIO 


RIO 


RIO 


RIO 


RIO 



4.0 FAR on wide streets outside tlie Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
3.0 FAR on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
7.2 FAR on wide streets outside the Manhattan Core under Quality Housing Program 
FAR bonus of up to 20'!o for a public plaza 
increase in FAR with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 




C6-2A 

(Residential district equivalent: R8A) 



C6-6 

(Residential district equivalent: RIO) 




C7 districts are specifically designated 
for large open amusement parks. In 
addition to the types of activities com- 
monly found in amusement parks, such 
as ferris wheel rides and games of chance 
(Use Croup 15), C7 districts also permit 
boating facilities and other large open 
and enclosed entertainment facilities like 
skating rinks, sports stadiums and min- 
iature golf courses (Use Croups 12-14). 
Residential and community facility uses 
are not permitted. 

The Coney Island amusement park area 
is zoned C7. 

The maximum floor area ratio is 2.0. 

Off-street parking requirements are low, 
but vary with the specific use. 







H».; 



unmljii s>5:«i-- 



:.^«ul. 




Colic) /i/o/id 





C8 districts, bridging commercial and 
manufacturing uses, provide for auto- 
motive and otiier heavy commercial 
services that often require large amounts 
of land. Parts of Bay Ridge in Brooklyn and 
Castleton Corners on Staten Island are 
mapped C8. Typical uses are automobile 
showrooms and repair shops, warehouses, 
gas stations and car washes — although 
all commercial uses (except large, open 
amusements) as well as certain com- 
munity facilities are permitted in C8 
districts. Housing is not permitted and 
performance standards are imposed for 
certain semi-industrial uses (Use Croups 
llAand 16). 

C8 districts are mapped mainly along 
major traffic arteries, such as Boston Road 
and Jerome Avenue in the Bronx and 
Coney Island Avenue in Brooklyn, where 
concentrations of automotive uses have 
developed. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) ranges 
from 1.0 in C8-1 districts to 5.0 in C8-4 
districts. 

Off-street parking requirements vary with 
district and use. Automotive uses in C8-1 
to C8-3 districts require substantial park- 
ing. C8-4 districts are usually exempt from 
parking requirements. 




CasUeton Corners 




Commercial FAR 



1.0 



2.0 



2.0 




Newtown Craek 



Chapter 5 

Manufacturing Districts 



Today's mauufacturuig uses and the zoning 
districts in wliich tliey are located encom- 
pass far more tJian factories engaged in 
the manufacture of goods. The range of industrial 
and manufacturing activities important to New 
York City's economy is enormous — from catering 
suppUers, lighting fabricators, and warehouse and 
distribution centers to film production studios, ferry 
and ship terminals, and essential municipal facilities 
like sewage treatment plants, train yards and sani- 
tation garages. In addition to these traditional and 
emerging industrial uses, manufacturing districts 
permit many coiumerciat uses and, with limitations, 
some community facility uses. 

Industrial uses are permitted in the three manu- 
facturing districts — Ml, M2 and M3 — according to 
the characteristics of their operations. Each of the 
three districts incorporate differing f^erformance 
staudards that limit the amount and type of indus- 
trial nuisances permitted. Light manufacturing uses 
{Use Giouff 17) are permitted in all manufacturing 
districts. In general, the more potentially noxious uses 
(Use Group 18) are limited to Ml3 districts, but may 
also locate in Ml and M2 districts if they comply with 
the higher performance standards of those districts. 
All industrial uses must also comply with applicable 
city, state and federal environmental regulations. 

With some exceptions, commercial uses, including 
hotels and business, professional and government 
offices, are permitted in manufacturing districts. 
Certain large retail uses are permitted in Ml dis- 
tricts only by a City Planning Commission special 
f'ermit. However, many retail and service uses, as 
well as hotels and motels, are prohibited in M2 and 
M3 districts. Community facilities are excluded 
entirely from M2 and MB districts and restricted 
to a few uses in Ml districts. Certain community 
facilities, such as schools, are allowed in Ml districts 
only by special permit. 



The 1961 Zoning Resolution separated industrial 
and residential areas to ensure safety and insulate 
residential communities from industrial traffic and 
other irritants, and to shield industry from nuisance- 
generated complaints. No new residences were per- 
mitted in manufacturing districts, although many 
existing residences remained as uou-couforming 
uses because of historic land use patterns. 

Today, new residential developments and conver- 
sions are permitted in selected Ml districts that have 
a significant number of existing residences. Paired 
districts, mapped in Special Mixed Use Districts 
(MX) and the Special Long Island City Mixed Use 
District, combine an Ml district with a residential 
district, allowing a fine-tuned mixture of appropri- 
ate uses. Other older industrial areas, like Soho and 
Noho in Manhattan, have changed significantly 
as obsolete industrial buildings within M1-5A, 
M1-5B, M1-5M and M1-6M districts are converted 
to residential use by special permit. New residences 
are prohibited in all M2 and MB districts. 

The floor area ratio (FAR) is the primary instru- 
ment for controlling building size in manufacturing 
districts. Four different floor area ratios (1.0, 2.0, 5.0 
and 10.0) regulate the intensity of land use in the 
city's manufacturing districts. In some instances, 
high parking and loading berth requirements also 
act to control building size. Height and setback 
regulations are similar to those for residence and 
commercial districts. Yard regulations, which are 
generally the same for all manufacturing districts, 
are designed to provide open space and buffer 
areas — primarily at the boundaries of residence 
districts. As a further protection for adjacent resi- 
dential areas, there are special regulations for indus- 
tries located on district boundaries. These include 
requirements for adequate enclosure and screening 
of industrial activities and limitations on the location 
of business entrances, display windows and signs. 



Ml districts range from the Garment 
District in Manhattan and Port Morris in 
the Bronx with multistory lofts, to parts 
of Red Hook or College Point with one- or 
two-story warehouses characterized by 
loading bays. Ml districts are often buffers 
between M2 or M3 districts and adjacent 
residential or commercial districts. Ml dis- 
tricts typically include light industrial uses, 
such as woodworking shops, repair shops, 
and wholesale service and storage facilities. 
Nearly all industrial uses are allowed in 
Ml districts if they meet the stringent Ml 
performance standards. Offices, hotels 
and most retail uses are also permitted. 
Certain community facilities, such as hos- 
pitals, are allowed in Ml districts only by 
special permit, but houses of worship are 
allowed as-of-rigbt. 

In M1-5A and M1-5B districts mapped 
in SoHo/NoHo, artists may occupy joint 
living-work quarters as an industrial 
use. Other than Ml districts paired with 
residence districts in Special Mixed Use 
Districts, M1-5M and M1-6M districts (by 
special permit) and Ml -D districts are the 
only manufacturing districts in which resi- 
dences are permitted. In Ml-ID through 
M1-5D districts, limited new residential 
uses with a maximum FAR of 1.65 are 
permitted only by authorization. 





Red Hook 



M1-4 



t.'^t ,'^Ji^ -;;..: -a ^ii^^»si-iji^g^g5^QBS^;.^^g^;t;■^^T:'M-i■')g^ 


Ml Manufacturing Districts . 




^iii..l-^r^:^^^^^m 


^^—- 


^^m. 


Ml-! 


Ml -2 


ivn-3 


Ml- 4 


M1-S 


Ml-6 


FAR (max) 


1.0 


2.0 


5.0 


2.0 


5.0 


10.0' 


Parking 


required rf 


squired 


required 


not required 


not required 


not required 



FAR bonus up to 20'!o for a public plaza 



M1-5 






In M1-5M and M1-6M districts, mapped 
in parts of Chelsea, space in an industrial 
building may be converted to residential 
use, provided a specified amount of floor 
area is preserved for particular industrial 
and commercial uses. 

Floor area ratios in Ml districts range 
from 1.0 to 10.0, depending on location; 
building height and setbacks are con- 
trolled by a sky exposure plane which 
may be penetrated by a tower in certain 
districts. Although new industrial build- 
ings are usually low-rise structures that fit 
within sky exposure planes, commercial 
and community facility buildings can be 
constructed as towers in Ml -3 through 
M1-6 districts. In the highest density 
manufacturing district. Ml -6, mapped 
only in Manhattan, an FAR of 12 can be 
achieved with a bonus for a pub/icp/ozo. 
Except along district boundaries, no side 
yards are required. Rear yards at least 20 
feet deep are usually required, except 
within 100 feet of a corner. 

Parking and loading requirements vary with 
district and use. Ml-1, Ml-2 and Ml-3 
districts are subject to parking requirements 
based on the type of use and size of an 
establishment. For example, a warehouse 
in an Ml-1 district requires one off-street 
parking space per 2,000 square feet of floor 
area or per every three employees, which- 
ever would be less. Parking is not required in 
Long Island City or Ml -4, Ml -5 and Ml -6 
districts, mapped mainly in Manhattan. 
Requirements for loading berths of specified 
dimensions differ according to district, size 
and type of use. 




IVI2 



M2 districts occupy the middle ground be- 
tween light and heavy industrial areas. The 
four M2 districts, with different floor area 
ratios (PAR) and parking requirements, 
are mapped mainly in the city's older in- 
dustrial areas along the waterfront. M2-1 
districts, for example, are mapped along 
much of Brooklyn's Red Hook and Sunset 
Park waterfronts. Manhattan's Hudson 
River piers, including the Passenger Ship 
Terminal and many municipal facilities, are 
within M2-3 districts. 

Required performance standards in 

all M2 districts are lower than in Ml 
districts. Except when M2 uses border 
on a residential district, higher levels of 
noise and vibration are allowed, smoke is 
permitted and industrial activities need 
not be entirely enclosed. 

The FAR is 2.0 in M2-1 and M2-3 districts 
and 5.0 in M2-2 and M2-4 districts. The 
maximum base height before setbacl< is 
60 feet in M2-1 and M2-3 districts; and 85 
feet in M2-2 and M2-4 districts. 

Parking requirements vary according to 
use and are the same as for the Ml and 
M3 districts. M2-3 and M2-4 districts, 
mapped only in Manhattan, are exempt 
from parking requirements, as are M2 
districts in Long Island City. Loading berth 
requirements differ according to district, 
type of use and size of establishment. 





M2-1 




Hudson Rn cr-Wi'st 59"' 


Street 




,^ 








M ^ 


M2 Manufacturinq Districts 


SKsnseaiE^v 


VJt 


IVI2 1 


IVI2-2 


IVI2 3 


M2-4 


FAR (max) 


2.0 


5.0 


2.0 


5,0 


Parking 


required 


required 


not required 


not required 




Gowanus 



M3-1 





M3 districts are designated for areas with 
heavy industries that generate noise, 
traffic or pollutants. Typical uses include 
power plants, solid waste transfer facili- 
ties and recycling plants, and fuel supply 
depots. Even in M3 districts, uses with 
potential nuisance effects are required 
to conform to minimum performance 
standards. 

Like IVI2 districts, M3 districts are usually 
located near the waterfront and buffered 
from residential areas. Large M3 districts 
are mapped along the Arthur Kill in Staten 
Island, along the East River shore of the 
South Bronx, and along the Gowanus 
Canal in Brooklyn. Smaller M3 districts, 
such as portions of Astoria, are located 
along the waterfront in all five boroughs 
and accommodate public utilities. 

The two M3 districts, both with a maxi- 
mum floor area ratio of 2.0 and a 
maximum base height before setbacit 
of 60 feet, differ only in parking require- 
ments. M3-1 districts are subject to the 
same parking requirements as Ml-1, 
Ml-2, M1-3, M2-1 and M2-2 districts; 
M3-2 districts, found only in Manhattan, 
are exempt. 



:?^*^'*>.i=i?- 




i 



* 
% 



m 



"•-at-' , J 




-.^•^^^.ifett^b^flJaa&^^^^vbiH^iiitiV;.:; 


1 


IVI3 Manufacturing Districts 


1 


■ . 


i ^ 


El 


M3 1 


IVI3-2 


FAR (liij;;) 


2.0 


2.0 


Parking 


required 


not required 



Zoning 
Symbol 


Special Purpose Districts 


Zoning 
Chapter 


Zoning IVIap(s) 


Adoption Date 


125 


125th Street District 


97-00 


5c 6a 6b 


4/30/08 


BPC 


Battery Park City District 


84-00 


12a 12b 


12/28/73; 11/13/81 


BR 


Bay Ridge District 


114-00 


22a 22b 


11/2/78 


CD 


City Island District 


112-00 


4c 4d 


1/20/77 


CL 


Clinton District 


96-00 


8a 8c 8d 


11/21/74 


CP 


College Point District 


126-00 


7b 10a 


7/29/09 


CI 


Coney Island District 


131-00 


28d 


7/29/09 


CO 


Coney Island Mixed Use District 


106-00 


28d 


1/9/75 


DB 


Downtown Brooklyn District 


101-00 


12d 16c 


7/26/01 


D) 


Downtown Jamaica District 


115-00 


14dl5al5b 


9/10/07 


FH 


Forest Hills District 


86-00 


14a 


3/24/09 


GC 


Garment Center District 


121-00 


8d 


3/26/87 


C 


Grand Concourse District 


122-00 


Id 3b 3c 3d 6a 


9/28/89 


HRW 


Harlem River Waterfront District 


87-00 


6a 


6/30/09 


HS 


Hillsides Preservation District 


119-00 


2la2lb21c2ld 


6/30/87 


HY 


Hudson Yards District 


93-00 


8b 8d 


1/19/05 


HP 


Hunts Point Special District 


108-00 


6c 


7/23/08 


LC 


Limited Commercial District 


83-00 


12c 


10/9/69 


L 


Lincoln Square District 


82-00 


8c 


4/24/69 


LI 


Little Italy District 


109-00 


12c 


2/3/77 


Lie 


Long Island City Mixed Use District 


117-00 


8d9b 


7/26/01 


LM 


Lower Manhattan District 


91-00 


12a 12b 12d 


8/27/98 


MP 


Madison Avenue Preservation District 


99-00 


5d6b8c 


12/20/73 


MMU 


Manhattanville Mixed Use District 


104-00 


5c 6a 


12/19/07 


MiD 


Midtown District 


81-00 


8c 8d 


5/13/82 


MX-1 


Mixed Use District-1: Port Morris 


123-00 


6a 6b 


12/10/97 


MX-2 


Mixed Use District-2: DUMBO 


123-00 


12d 


7/29/09 


MX-4 


Mixed Use District-4: Flushing/Bedford 


123-00 


12d 13b 


5/9/01 


MX-5 


Mixed Use District-5: Red Hook 


123-00 


16a 


1/30/02 


MX-6 


Mixed Use District-6: Hudson Square 


123-00 


12a 


7/23/08 


MX-7 


Mixed Use District-7: Morrisania 


123-00 


3d 6c 


8/19/03 


MX-8 


Mixed Use District-8: Greenpoint-Williamsburg 


123-00 


12c 12d 13a 13b 


9/28/04 


MX-9 


Mixed Use District-9: Northern Hunters Point Waterfront 


123-00 


9b 


8/16/06 


MX-10 


Mixed Use District-1 0: Atlantic and Howard Avenues 


123-00 


17a 


10/29/07 


MX-11 


Mixed Use District-ll: Gowanus 


123-00 


16c 


3/11/09 


MX-12 


Mixed Use District-12; Borough Park 


123-00 


22c 


10/27/10 


MX-1 3 


Mixed Use Distnct-13: Lower Concourse 


123-00 


6a 


6/30/09 


MX-14 


Mixed Use Di5trict-14: Third Avenue/Tremont Avenue 


123-00 


3c 3d 


10/13/10 


NA-1 


Natural Area District-1 


105-00 


21 b 26a 26b 26c 26d 27a 27b 


12/19/74 


NA-2 


Natural Area District-2 


105-00 


la Iblc Id 


5/21/75 


NA-3 


Natural Area District-3 


105-00 


21d 


12/1/77 


NA-4 


Natural Area District-4 


105-00 


7d lie 


4/28/83 


OP 


Ocean Parkway District 


113-00 


16d22c22d28c28d 


1/20/77 


PI 


Park Improvement District 


92-00 


5d 6b 8c 9a 


4/23/73 


PC 


Planned Community Preservation District 


103-00 


3b 4b 6a 9b 9dl0d lib 14c 15a 


7/18/74 


SV-1 


Scenic View District 


102-00 


12b 12d 


10/24/74 


SB 


Sheepshead Bay District 


94-00 


29a 


10/4/73 


SRD 


South Richmond Development District 


107-00 


26b 26d 27b 32c 32d 33a 
33b 33c 33d 34a 35a 35c 


9/11/75 


SHP 


Southern Hunters Point District 


125-00 


8d 


11/13/08 


SC 


St. George District 


128-00 


21c 


10/23/08 


sw 


Stapleton Waterfront District 


116-00 


21c 21d 


10/25/06 


TA 


Transit Land Use District 


95-00 


6b8c8d9al2c12d 


12/28/73 


TMU 


Tribeca Mixed Use District 


111-00 


12a 12b 


6/11/76 


US 


Union Square District 


118-00 


12c 


1/10/85 


u 


United Nations Development District 


85-00 


8d 


3/20/70 


WCh 


West Chelsea District 


98-00 


8b 


6/23/05 


WP 


Willets Point District 


124-00 


10a 10b 


n/13/08 



Chapter 6 

Special Purpose Districts 




The City Planning Commission (CPC) has 
been designating special zoning districts 
since 1969 to achieve specific planning 
and urban design objectives in defined areas with 
unique characteristics. Special districts respond to 
specific conditions; each district designated by the 
Commission stipulates zoning regulations and/or 



zoning incentives tailored to distinctive qualities 
that may not lend themselves to generalized zoning 
and standard development plans. 

The table on the facing page lists the date of adoption 
and the applicable Zoning Resolution chapter, map(s) 
and symbol for each special purpose district. 




125'" STREET 
SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special 125"' Street 
District (125) is part 
of a city initiative to 
support and enhance 
'K 125"^ Street— Harlem's 
"Main Street" — as a 
major arts/entertain- 
ment destination and 
regional business dis- 
trict. The district includes 24 blocks in East, 
Central and West Harlem, within an area generally 
bounded by 124"' Street, 126"^ Street, Broadway 
and Second Avenue. 

The aim of the district is to generate new mixed use 
development while protecting the scale of the 125"' 
Street corridor's commercial and historic rowhouse 
areas by establishing street wall and height limits. 
To ensure active and diverse retail uses, special 
regulations restrict the amount of ground floor 
street frontage that may be occupied by banks, 
office and residential lobbies, and other non-active 
uses. Moreover, within the Core Subdistrict, the 
district requires the inclusion of arts and entertain- 
ment uses for developments over a certain size. The 
district establishes an innovative arts bonus — the 
first in the City — to provide an incentive for the 
creation of nonprofit visual or performing arts 
spaces. Opportunities for housing are expanded by 
increasing residential density in certain areas and 
offering affordable housing through the Indnsionary 
Housing designated areas Program. 

BATTERY PARK CITY SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special Battery Park City District (BPC) was 
created, in accordance with a master plan, to govern 
extensive residential and commercial development 



in an area on the Hudson River close to the business 
core of Lower Manhattan. 

The central component of the master plan is an 
office complex flanked by two large residential 
neighborhoods extending south to The Battery and 
north to Chambers Street. A continuous esplanade 
providing public access to the Hudson River water- 
front is a major element of the plan. The district 
regulates permitted uses and bulk within three 




specified areas and establishes special design con- 
trols with respect to front building walls, building 
heights, waterfront design and parking. 

BAY RIDGE SPECIAL DISTRICT (Brooklyn) 

The Special Bay Ridge District (BR) maintains 
the neighborhood's existing scale in conjunction 
with contextual and lower-density zoning districts 
mapped throughout the district. Beyond the under- 
lying district controls, the neighborhood streetscape 
is preserved by limitations on the maximum per- 
mitted floor area ratio (FAR) and the height of 
community facilities, which is limited to 32 feet in 
contextual zoning districts. These regulations pre- 
serve the low-rise character of one- to three-family 
homes on the midblocks and encourage five- to eight- 
story apartment houses with ground floor stores 
along the avenues. 




CITY ISLAND SPECIAL DISTRICT (The Bronx) 

The Special City Island District (CD), encompassing 
an entire island in Long Island Sound, was adopted 
to preserve its nautical heritage and low-rise resi- 
dential character, as well as the "village" quality 
of its commercial center on City Island Avenue. 
Regulations encourage the traditional building form 
of one or two l^" '■ ^-i' " , - - ' 

stories of resi- »--'"'■ 
dences above 
ground floor 
stores in the 
village center, 
restrict the 
size and illumination of business signs, and estab- 
lish landscaping and screening requirements for 
parking lots. New residential developments on large 
waterfront lots are required to provide a publicly 
accessible sitting area next to the shoreline. The 
only commercial and manufacturing uses permitted 
are those that reflect the island's nautical flavor or 
serve the retail needs of residents and visitors. 

CLINTON SPECIAL DISTRICT (Manhattan) 

The Special Clinton District (CL), generally between 
West 41" and West 59"' Streets west of Eighth 

Avenue, was cre- 
ated to preserve 
and strengthen 
the residential 
I character of a 
I community bor- 
I dering Midtown, 
maintain a broad 
mix of incomes and ensure that the community is 
not adversely affected by new development. Special 
regulations for designated perimeter areas provide 
appropriate transitions between the lower-scale side 
streets, and the Special Hudson Yards District to 
the south and the Special Midtown District to the 
east. The Incltisiotmry Honsing designated areas 
Program is applicable within part of the district. 




COLLEGE POINT SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Queens) 

The Special College Point District (CP) was created 
to maintain an attractive, well-functioning business 
park setting for business uses and ensure that there 
are minimal effects on adjacent residential blocks. 
Specific regulations pertaining to yards, signage, 
parking and bulk are based in large measure on the 
former Urban Renewal Plan that successfully guided 
the transformation of the area since 1971. The cor- 
porate park environment is sustained by requiring 
front and side yards, restricting signage and loading 
locations, and setting higher parking requirements 
for certain commercial uses. Street tree planting 
and landscaping for front yards and parking lots 
are required for Use Group 17 and 18 uses. All uses 
must meet Ml performance standards and provide 
enclosure or screening to minimize impacts upon 
neighboring uses. Unlike most manufacturing dis- 
tricts, parks and other recreational uses are allowed 
as-of-right. 

CONEY ISLAND SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Brooklyn) 

The Special Coney Island District (CI) was cre- 
ated as part of a comprehensive, long-range plan to 
re-establish famed Coney Island as a year-round, 
open entertainment and amusement destination. 
Outside of the entertainment area, the district 
fosters neighborhood amenities and new housing 
opportunities, including affordable housing through 
the IncUisionary Housing designated areas Program. 







Regulations are tailored to four subdistricts: Coney 
East modifies the underlying zoning to facilitate the 
development of a year-round amusement and enter- 
tainment district with a 12 -acre amusement park as 
its centerpiece; outside of the entertainment district, 
Coney North and Coney West provide for mixed 
residential and retail uses, including entertainment 
and amusement uses along a revitalized Boardwalk 
and Surf Avenue. Mermaid Avenue includes residen- 
tial and neighborhood retail uses under contextual 
zoning regulations that provide a transition to the 
existing residential neighborhood. 

CONEY ISLAND MIXED USE SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Brooklyn) 

The Special Coney Island Mixed Use District (CO) 
was established to stabilize existing residential devel- 
opment and protect the industries within an area, 
zoned Ml-2, north of Neptune Avenue. The district 
allows existing residential buildings to be improved 
and enlarged, and new residential infill housing to 
be developed if adjacent to an existing residence or 
coitttuuuity facility. Certain manufacturing uses and 
most commercial uses are allowed as-of-right on lots 
adjacent to existing commercial and manufacturing 
uses, and along certain streets that allow commercial 
uses. The City Planning Commission may grant a 
special permit for new commercial and manufactur- 
ing development at any location within the district. 

DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Brooklyn) 

The Special Downtown Brooklyn District (DB) 
establishes special height and setback regulations 
and urban design guidelines to promote and support 
the continued growth of Downtown Brooklyn as 
a unique mixed use area. The economic, civic and 
retail center of the borough, Downtown Brooklyn is 
the city's third largest central business district — a 
hub of office buildings, courthouses and government 
buildings, major academic and cultural institutions, 
and active retail corridors. It is surrounded by historic 
residential neighborhoods. 




Flexible height and set- 
back regulations for a 
range of moderate- to 
high-density residential 
and commercial zoning 
districts facilitate devel- 
opment on the small, 
irregularly-shaped lots 
typical of Downtown 
Brooklyn. The higher- 
density zoning districts 
allow either Quality 
Housing buildings with 
height limits or tow- 
ers-on-a-base without 
height limits. The Inclusionary Housing RIO 
Program, which offers incentives for the provision of 
affordable housing, is applicable in the highest-den- 
sity zoning districts. The moderate-density zoning 

districts allow 
for flexible 
building enve- 
lopes with 
height limits. 
.A. height limi- 
tation area is 
designated on 
Schermerhorn 
Street and Flatbush Avenue Extension as a transition 
between the high-rise core of the central business 
district and adjacent residential neighborhoods. 
Urban design guidelines promote ground floor retail 
and street wall continuity, storefront glazing, side- 
walk widening, curb cut restrictions and off-street 
relocation of subway stairs. 

There are two subdistricts — Atlantic Avenue and 
Fulton Mall — each with its own bulk and use regu- 
lations intended to preserve the scale and character 
of Atlantic Avenue, including certain architectural 
features, and to create an attractive shopping envi- 
ronment within the Fulton Mall, respectively. 




DOWNTOWN JAMAICA SPECrAL DISTRICT 
(Queens) 

The Special Downtown Jamaica District (DJ) builds 
upon Jamaica's strengths as a multimodal trans- 
portation hub to support the downtown business 
district, expand housing and economic opportunities 
along the area's major streets and transportation 
corridors, protect adjacent low-density neighbor- 
hoods and create affordable housing. The district's 
use regulations encourage mixed use development 
in denser transit-oriented locations convenient to 
shoppers and its bulk provisions allow taller build- 
ings with higher floor area ratios at the transit hubs. 




The transition rule regulates the change in building 
massing from taller building portions allowed along 
wide streets to a reduced scale for building portions 
that abut smaller homes in lower density residential 
zoning districts. The district's controls pertaining 
to glazing, street walls, retail continuity, sidewalk 
widening, sidewalk cafes and other streetscape ele- 
ments support an attractive and viable downtown 
area. The Inclusionary Housing designated areas 
Program provides incentives for affordable housing 
in 70 blocks in Downtown Jamaica and along nearby 
portions of Hillside Avenue. 

FOREST HILLS SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Queens) 

The Special Forest Hills District (FH) is centered on 

Austin Street, a vibrant commercial hub that serves 

the residents of Forest Hills and the surrounding 

area with a successful mix of shops and restaurants. 




Bounded by Queens Boulevard, Ascan Avenue, 
the Long Island Railroad (LIRR) and Yellowstone 
Boulevard, the district encompasses a 10-blockarea; 
its provisions for glazing, retail continuity and side- 
walk cafes, as well as restrictions on curb cuts, sup- 
port an attractive and pedestrian-friendly shopping 
area. The district supports efficient building floor 
plates by eliminating the rear yard requirement 
for commercial 
and community 
facility uses 
on properties 
along Austin 
Street adjoin- 
ing the LIRR. Ilu .1BL„,. "^^^-Jb, * ^g?ra-" "ai^A J 
Additional bulk 
requirements ensure predictable building enve- 
lopes and provide a transition in building scale 
from lower-rise buildings on Austin Street to taller 
buildings along Queens Boulevard. 

GARMENT CENTER SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Manhattan) 

The Special Garment Center District (GC) was 
created to maintain opportunities for apparel 
production, and wholesale and showroom uses 
in designated Preservation Areas on selected mid- 
blocks between West 35"' and West 40"' Streets 
west of Broadway. In Preservation Area 1 (P-1), 
east of Eighth Avenue, residences and hotels are not 
permitted and the conversion of industrial space 
to office use is permitted only by certification by 
the chairperson of the City Planning Commission 
that an equal amount of comparable floor area 
has been preserved for specified industrial uses. 
In Preservation Area 2 (P-2), between Eighth and 
Ninth Avenues, conversion of larger buildings to 
residential, office or hotel use is permitted only by 
authorization of the City Planning Commission. 
The Inclusionary Housing designated areas 
Program is applicable within the P-2 area. 



GRAND CONCOURSE SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(The Bronx) 

The Special Grand Concourse District (C), extend- 
ing almost the entire length of the boulevard from 
East 15P' Street to Mosholu Parkway, was created 
to protect the distinctive art deco composition and 
scale of the apart- 
ment buildings 
that line this wide 
thoroughfare. The 
district establishes 
bulk and design reg- 
ulations and limits 
commercial uses to 
specific locations. 
The district consists 
of a Residential Preservation Area and three com- 
mercial areas where retail uses do not conflict with 
the district's traditional residential character. 




HILLSIDES PRESERVATION SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Staten island) 

The Special Hillsides Preservation District (HS) 
guides development in the steep slope areas of Staten 
Island's Serpentine Ridge, an area of approximately 
1,900 acres in the northeastern part of the borough. 
The purpose of the district is to reduce hillside ero- 
sion, landslides and excessive stormwater runoff 
by preserving the area's hilly terrain, trees and 
vegetation. The primary means of regulating devel- 
opment in the district is to control the amount of 
the lot that can be covered by a building. As the 
development site becomes steeper, permitted lot 
coverage decreases (although the permissible floor 
area remains the same). This may result in a taller 
building but less impact on steep slopes and natu- 
ral features. There are special regulations for the 
removal of trees, grading of land, and construction 
of driveways and private roads. 



HARLEM RIVER WATERFRONT SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (The Bronx) 

The Special Harlem River Waterfront District 
(HRW) supports the revitalization of this underuti- 
lized area in the South Bronx into a vibrant, mixed 
use, mixed-income neighborhood while retaining 
viable light industry. Building heights and massing 
are modified along the Harlem River to promote 
orderly waterfront development. Bulk regulations 
encourage a varied skyline with waterfront views 
by requiring tali, slender towers surrounded by 
open space and public access areas, in accordance 
with the Waterfront Access Plait (WAP). There is 
a framework for mixed use development to ensure 
a full range of uses along the waterfront; each 
square foot of retail space must be matched with 
an equal amount of residential, community facility, 
office or hotel use, and at least 20 percent of each 
building must contain active uses at the ground 
floor. Affordable housing is available through the 
Inclusionary Housing designated areas Program. 



HUDSON YARDS SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Manhattan) 




The Special Hudson Yards District (HY) was 
established to foster a mix of uses and densities, 
provide new publicly accessible open space, extend 
the Midtown central business district by providing 
opportunities for substantial new office and hotel 
development, reinforce existing residential neighbor- 
hoods and encourage new housing on Manhattan's 
Far West Side. The special district includes two 



new corridors for high-density commercial and 
residential development supported by a subway line 
extension, new parks and an urban boulevard. New 
mid-density residential development will form a 
transition to existing residential neighborhoods and 
the Special Garment Center District to the east. 

The district mandates a variety of use, bulk and 
urban design controls applicable to six subdistricts. 
In certain zoning districts, the maximum floor area 
ratios of the underlying districts may be increased 
through a District Improvement Bonus mechanism 
(alone or in tandem with the lucUisionary Housing 
designated areas Program) that would support 
financing of specific capital improvements in the 
area. Transfers of floor area are also permitted under 
certain conditions. 

Flexible as-of-right height and setback controls 
accommodate large floorplate office buildings and 
allow for creative design within the predominantly 
commercial areas. Mandated improvements include 
retail use on major corridors, street wall continu- 
ity, pedestrian circulation space, plantings, subway 
entrance easements, and screened or below-grade 
parking. The district has unique off-street park- 
ing regulations that manage the total amount of 
parking that can be constructed in the district as 
it is developed. 

HUNTS POINT SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(The Bronx) 

The Special Hunts Point District (HP) in the South 
Bronx is adjacent to the Hunt's Point Food Market, 
the city's primary wholesale food distribution cen- 
ter. The district strengthens the expanding food 
industry sector and creates an area of high-perfor- 
mance industrial and commercial uses between the 
stable Hunts Point residential area and the heavy 
industrial areas. The two parts of the district — 
the Residential Buffer Subdistrict and the Food 
Industry Subdistrict — provide buffers by prohibit- 



ing most new heavy industrial uses regardless of 
f^erformattce standards, unless compatible with food 
businesses. Use, enclosure and street tree planting 
regulations provide a buffer and transition between 
the market, industrial uses and residences, improve 
the appearance of the area, and also promote retail 
services. Certain community facilities are allowed 
as-of-right. 

LIMITED COMMERCIAL SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Citywide) 

The Special Limited Commercial District (LC) 

attempts to preserve the character of commercial 

areas within historic districts by permitting only 

those commercial uses compatible with the historic 

district, and by mandating that all commercial uses 

be in completely enclosed buildings. In addition, 

limitations are placed on the size and illumination 

of signs. There is one such special district mapped 

in Greenwich Village in Manhattan. 

LINCOLN SQUARE SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 





Sw ^^n WW w W i 1a , 1 1 1 i 1 ' 




The Special Lincoln Square District (L) was estab- 
lished to preserve and enhance the area surrounding 
Lincoln Center as an international center for the 
performing arts. In order to encourage desirable 
urban design, buildings along Broadway must be set 
at the street line although arcades are permitted. To 
attract a balanced cluster of activities, the district 
also regulates the types of street level uses and 
limits commercial development. Floor area bonuses 
are available by special permit from the City 



Planning Commission for developments that include 
subway improvements or affordable housing as set 
forth in the Inclusionary Housing RIO Program. 



mM^w^ 




LITTLE ITALY SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special Little 

Italy District (LI) 

was established 

^'^''^l ''° preserve and 

\^i, enhance the his- 

, J s ". . toric and commer- 

''^'"^ IJ. cial character of 

this traditional community. Special use regulations 
protect the retail area along Mulberry Street. Other 
regulations encourage residential rehabilitation 
and new development on a scale consistent with 
existing buildings, discourage the demolition of 
noteworthy buildings and increase the number of 
street trees in the area. 

LONG ISLAND CITY MIXED USE SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Queens) 




The Special Long Island City Mixed Use District 
(LIC) promotes the development and expansion, 
at varying densities, of the longstanding mix of 
residential, commercial, industrial and cultural 
uses found in its four subdistricts — Court Square, 
Queens Plaza, Hunters Point and Dutch Kills. Paired 
districts combine a manufacturing and a residential 
district, as in the Special Mixed Use District, and 



are mapped in the Queens Plaza, Hunters Point and 
Dutch Kills Subdistricts. 

The Court Square and Queens Plaza Subdistricts 
comprise a 37-block area mapped for moder- 
ate- to high-density, 24-hour, pedestrian- and 
transit-oriented development. The highest density 
is allowed near subway stations in the Queens Plaza 
Subdistrict where special bulk provisions encourage 
tower development. Lower density, high lot coverage 
buildings are allowed elsewhere in the subdistrict 
and additional density can be achieved at the edges 
of the subdistrict through a floor area bonus for 
providing public open space and public parking. A 
floor area ratio of 15.0 is available for providing sub- 
way improvements in the Court Square Subdistrict 
if minimum lot and development thresholds are 
met. Scale, use, and density patterns are similar 
in the Dutch Kills and Hunters Point Subdistricts. 
Affordable housing in the Dutch Kills Subdistrict 
may be developed through the Inclusionary Housing 
designated areas Program. 

LOWER MANHATTAN SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Manhattan) 

The Special Lower Manhattan District (LM) was 
established to enhance the vitality of Lower 
Manhattan, home of the city's oldest central busi- 
ness district and a growing residential community. 
The district regulations allow for the conversion of 
older commercial buildings to residential use and 
encourage a dynamic mix of uses in the area while 
protecting its distinctive skyline and old street pat- 
terns. The built character of the area is enhanced 
by height and setback regulations and limitations 
on the dimensions of tall buildings. The pedestrian 
environment is enriched by requirements for retail 
continuity, pedestrian circulation space and sub- 
way station improvements. 

The Special Lower Manhattan District covers the 
area south of Murray Street, City Hall Park and the 
approaches to the Brooklyn Bridge, excluding Battery 




Park City. Two subareas are located within the spe- 
cial district: the South Street Seaport Subdistrict and 
the Historic and Commercial Core. The South Street 
Seaport Subdistrict protects the scale and character 
of 18"^ and 19'*> century mercantile buildings by 
allowing the transfer of development rights to des- 
ignated receiving lots. The Historic and Commercial 
Core seeks to ensure that new development in the 
area bounded by Wall Street, Broadway, Water Street 
and Whitehall Street will be compatible with exist- 
ing buildings that line the streets mapped in the 
Strcctj^lati of New Amsterdam and Colonial New York, 
a street layout accorded landmark status by the NYC 
Landmarks Preservation Commission. 

MADISON AVENUE PRESERVATION 
SPECIAL DISTRICT (Manhattan) 

r • 




The Special Madison Avenue Preservation District 
(MP) preserves and reinforces the unique retail 
and residential character of Madison Avenue and 
the surrounding area from East 61'"' to East 96"^ 



Streets. Retail continuity is ensured for the famed 
specialty shops by mandating that the ground floor 
of buildings on Madison Avenue must be occupied 
by selected nses. Bulk and street wall provisions 
limit the height of new development to the scale of 
existing buildings but allow for greater lot coverage. 
The maximum floor area ratio is 10.0. The loca- 
tion and setback requirements for street walls of 
buildings fronting on side streets provide a smooth 
transition to the lower buildings typically found on 
the midblocks. 

MANHATTANVILLE MIXED USE SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Manhattan) 

The Manhattanville Mixed Use Special District 
(MMU) in West Harlem allows greater density 
and a wider variety of land uses to facilitate com- 
mercial and residential development, as well as 
Columbia University's planned expansion into a 
new campus with state-of-the-art educational and 
research facilities that will incorporate extensive 
below-grade development. Active ground floor 
uses are encouraged along Broadway, West 125"' 
Street and 12"' Avenue to promote the vitality 
of the neighborhood streets. Design regulations 
require publicly accessible open spaces, sidewalk 
amenities, sidewalk widening and landscaping. The 
district provides east-west visual and pedestrian 
connections to encourage the use of the community- 
oriented waterfront, emphasizing the West Harlem 
Piers Park. The bulk regulations for buildings to be 
developed alongside the railroad viaducts accomo- 
date each of these historic elevated structures. 

MIDTOWN SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special Midtown District (MiD), estabhshed 
to guide development within the Midtown central 
business district, has three goals: growth, stabili- 
zation and preservation. The district was enacted 
in 1982 to shift future development further to the 




west and south in response to an over-concentration 
of development on the east side of Midtown. 

The district establishes differing bulk and density 
limits for avenue frontages and midblocks, and 
for each of the subdistricts— Fifth Avenue, Grand 
Central, Penn Center, Preservation and Theater. A 
floor area bonus for public plazas, subway station 
improvements or theater rehabilitation is available 
in some subdistricts. The Preservation Subdistrict is 
not eligible for any floor area bonuses and its base 
floor area ratio (FAR) is lower than elsewhere in 
the special district in order to limit development on 
certain side streets. Certain urban design features, 
such as continuity of street wall and retail uses, off- 
street relocation of subway stairs and provision of 
on-site pedestrian circulation spaces, are mandated 
within the district. 

The Theatre Subdistrict requires a City Planning 
Commission special permit for demolition of legiti- 
mate theaters that are not designated landmarks. In 
addition, a floor area bonus is available by special 
permit for rehabilitation of legitimate theaters. A 
flexible program for the transfer of development 
rights preserves landmarked and legitimate theaters 
and new buildings above a certain size must reserve 
at least five percent of floor space for entertainment 
and theater-related uses. 



Special use and signage requirements in keeping with 
the character of the area are applicable in the Fifth 
Avenue, Penn Center and Theater Subdistricts. Large 
illuminated signs, for example, must be incorporated 
into the facades of new buildings to ensure the con- 
tinued brilliance of the celebrated Great White Way 
in Times Square. In the Grand Central Subdistrict, 
special regulations govern transfers of development 
rights and seek to expand and improve its extensive 
subsurface pedestrian network. Special use restric- 
tions in the Fifth Avenue Subdistrict reinforce its 
character as a showcase tourist and shopping destina- 
tion. Signage regulations enhance the retail uses and 
transit connections of the Penn Center Subdistrict. 

MIXED USE SPECIAL DISTRICTS 
(Citywide) 




Creenpoint 

The Special Mixed Use District (MX) was estab- 
lished in 1997 to encourage investment in, and 
enhance the vitality of, existing neighborhoods 
with mixed residential and industrial uses in close 
proximity and create expanded opportunities for 
new mixed use communities. New residential 
and non-residential uses (commercial, community 
facility and light industrial) can be developed as- 
of-rigltt and be located side-by-side or within the 
same building. Pairing an Ml district with an R3 
through RIO district (e.g. M1-2/R6) ensures a bal- 
anced variety of uses. 



Residential uses are generally subject to the bulk 
controls of the governing residence district; com- 
mercial, industrial and community facility uses are 
subject to the Ml district bulk controls, except that 
community facilities are subject to residential FAR 
limits. Most light industrial uses are permitted in 
each MX district as-of-right, others are subject to 
restrictions and Use Group 18 uses are excluded 
altogether, except for small breweries. 

Special Mixed Use Districts are mapped in Port 
Morris (MX-1), Morrisania (MX-7), Lower Concourse 
(MX-13), and Third Avenue/Tremont Avenue 
(MX-14) in the Bronx; in DUMBO (MX-2), Flushing/ 
Bedford (MX-4), Red Hook (MX-5), Greenpoint- 
Williamsburg (MX-8), Atlantic and Howard Avenues 
(MX-10), Gowanus (MX-11) and Borough Park 
(MX-12) in Brooklyn; Hudson Square (MX-6) in 
Manhattan; and Northern Hunters Point Waterfront 
(MX-9) in Queens. 

NATURAL AREA SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Citywide) 




Riverdale 

The purpose of the Special Natural Area District 
(NA) is to guide new development and site alter- 
ations in areas endowed with unique natural char- 
acteristics, including forests, rock outcrops, steep 
slopes, creeks and a variety of botanic and aquatic 
environments. In the four Special Natural Areas, the 
City Planning Commission reviews proposals for 
new development, enlargements and site alterations 
to maximize protection of natural features. Natural 
features are protected by limiting modifications in 



topography, by preserving tree, plant and marine 
life, and natural water courses, and by encouraging 
clustered development. 

The four Special Natural Area Districts are 
NA-1: Emerson Hill, Dongan Hills, Todt Hill, 

Lighthouse Hill and the central wetlands of 

Staten Island 

NA-2: Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil and Fieldston, 
The Bronx 

NA-3: Shore Acres Area, Staten Island 

NA-4: Fort Totten, Queens 

OCEAN PARKWAY SPECIAL DISTRICT 




The Special Ocean Parkway District (OP), encom- 
passing a band of blocks east and west of the 
parkway between Prospect Park and Brighton Beach, 
enhances the qualities of this broad landscaped road 
designated a scenic landmark. All new developments 
fronting on Ocean Parkway are required to have a 
30-foot-deep landscaped frotit yard unobstructed 
by porches, canopies or stairs. Only driveways 
or walkways may be paved. Accessory off-street 
parking must be completely enclosed and any new 
community facility development or enlargement 
is limited to the residential bulk regulations of 
the underlying zoning district, except by City 
Planning Commission cevtif teat ion. The district 
also preserves the character of the large, detached 
and semi-detached, one- and two-family homes in 
the areas east and west of the Parkway. 




■,«!i 



' ^' I: I ^. '' ' 







PARK IMPROVEMENT SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Manhattan) 

The Special Park Improvement District (PI) was 
created to preserve the 
residential character and 
architectural quality of 
Fifth and Park Avenues 
from East 59* to East 111"' 
Streets. It limits the height 
of new buildings to 210 
feet or 19 stories, which- 
ever is less, and mandates 
street watt continuity. No 
bonus is allowed. 



PLANNED COMMUNITY PRESERVATION 
SPECIAL DISTRICT (Citywide) 

The Special Planned Community Preservation 
District (PC) designation protects the unique char- 
acter of communities that have been planned and 
developed as a unit. Those communities characteristi- 
cally have large landscaped open spaces and a superior 
relationship of buildings, open spaces, commercial 
uses, and pedestrian and vehicular circulation. 
No demolition, new development, enlargement or 
alteration of landscaping or topography is permitted 
within the district except by sf^eciat permit of the 
City Planning Commission. Preservation districts 
have been mapped in Sunnyside Gardens and Fresh 
Meadows in Queens, Parkchester in the Bronx and 
Harlem River Houses in Manhattan. 



SCENIC VIEW SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Citywide) 

The Special Scenic View District (SV) is intended to 
prevent obstruction of outstanding scenic views as 
seen horn a ytibtic parte, esplanade or mapped public 
place. No buildings or structures are allowed to pen- 
etrate a scenic view plane except by special permit 
of the City Planning Commission. The Brooklyn 
Heights Scenic View District (SV-1) extends over 
an area west of the Brooklyn Heights Promenade to 




protect the views of the Lower Manhattan skyline. 
Governors Island, the Statue of Liberty and the 
Brooklyn Bridge. 



SHEEPSHEAD BAY SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Brooklyn) 




The Special Sheepshead Bay District (SB) seeks to 
encourage development that will strengthen and 
protect the unique character of this waterfront 
community. In the area immediately north of the 
fishing fleet wharves, commerciat uses are restricted 
to waterfront and tourist-related activities. Special 
density and height limits govern new development 
throughout the district. Along Emmons Avenue, 
new developments must provide widened sidewalks 
and plazas with sitting areas, landscaping, kiosks 
and cafes upon certification of the City Planning 
Commission. Floor area tjonuses are available for 
large plazas, arcades, accessory outdoor space and 
additional accessory commercial parking. 



SOUTH RICHMOND DEVELOPMENT 
SPECIAL DISTRICT (Staten Island) 

The Special South Richmond Development District 
(SRD) was established in 1975 to guide the develop- 
ment of the southern part of Staten Island. At a time 
of rapid development, strict rules were adopted to 
manage growth in this area of more than 20 square 
miles and to ensure that the provision of public 
infrastructure kept pace with new development. 

To avoid destruction of the natural and recreational 
resources that define the community, the district 
mandates tree preservation and planting require- 
ments, controls changes to topography, and estab- 
lishes special building height and setback limits, 
and designated open spaces (DOS) to be left in a 
natural state as part of an open space network that 
includes fntblic fmrks and waterfront esplanades. 
To ensure that public school needs are addressed, 
the Chairperson of the City Planning Commission 
must certify that sufficient school capacity exists 
to accommodate a new residential development, 
except in a i^redotiiittautty built-iif area, before a 
building permit can be issued. 

SOUTHERN HUNTERS POINT SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Queens) 

The Special Southern Hunters Point District (SHP) 
seeks to transform an underutilized waterfront 
area into a higher-density mixed use development 
with residential and retail uses, community facili- 
ties, a fmblic fmrk and waterfront open space. Two 
subdistricts — the East River Subdistrict and the 
Newtown Creek Subdistrict — have special use, bulk, 
and height and setback provisions that produce a 
varied skyline, buildings with tapered tops, active, 
pedestrian-oriented ground floors and landscaped, 
publicly-accessible open space at key locations. New 
development is sited to highlight views of midtown 
Manhattan and the East River or Newtown Creek 
waterfronts. In the Newton Creek Subdistrict, the 
Inclusionary Housing designated areas Program 



provides incentives for affordable housing and 
another floor area bonus encourages the provision 
of a publicly-accessible private street and open area. 
The Newtown Creek Subdistrict has a Waterfront 
Access Plan (WAP) to ensure continuity with the 
new public park to be developed within the East 
River Subdistrict. 



ST. CEORCE SPECIAL DISTRICT 
(Staten Island) 




The Special St. George District (SG) was created to 
support a pedestrian-friendly business and residence 
district in a unique hillside waterfront community 
that is one of Staten Island's oldest commercial 
neighborhoods. Adjacent to the Staten Island Ferry, 
the area is a major transit hub and the borough's 
civic center. Special rules enhance designated com- 
mercial streets by requiring coiitinuous ground floor 
contmerciat uses, with large windows and wider 
sidewalks. The configuration of towers is regulated 
in order to preserve views from upland areas to 
the waterfront. Vacant office buildings can now 
be more easily converted to residential use. Special 
parking and landscaping provisions are intended to 
provide a pleasing pedestrian experience. 

STAPLETON WATERFRONT SPECIAL 
DISTRICT (Staten Island) 

The Special Stapleton District (SW), on the north 

shore of Staten Island, is part of a comprehensive 

plan to develop the former U.S. Navy homeport 

into a 12-acre waterfront esplanade with a mixed 



extension to the Stapleton town center. Special 
commercial district regulations provide for mixed 
buildings with ground floor retail uses, such as 
waterfront restaurants and other water-related 
uses, in a walkable neighborhood. Design controls, 
including street wall provisions and a low building 
height to frame the imblic jmrk, respect the char- 
acter and scale of the upland portions of Stapleton. 
To encourage similar development on key streets 
linking the town center to the waterfront, space 
used for non-residential uses on the ground floor of 
buildings containing residential uses will not count 
as floor area. Although not subject to waterfront 
design rules, pedestrian connections to the water- 
front esplanade and unobstructed visual corridors 
are required at regular intervals as extensions of the 
streets of the Stapleton town center. 

TRANSIT LAND USE SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special Transit Land Use District (TA) relates 
development along Second Avenue to the future 
subway line. In place of sidewalk obstructions that 
impede pedestrian circulation, the special district 
requires builders of developments adjoining planned 
subway stations to reserve space in their projects, 
by providing an easement, for public access to the 
subway or other subway-related uses. The district is 
mapped at locations along Second Avenue between 
Chatham Square in Chinatown and East 126"' 
Street in Harlem. 

TRIBECA MIXED USE SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special Tribeca Mixed Use District (TMU), was 
originally enacted in 1976 as the Lower Manhattan 
Mixed Use District to permit limited residential 
development in an otherwise industrial 62-block 
area in Manhattan within the triangle below Canal 
Street, west of Broadway. Revised in 1995 and in 
2010, the underlying zoning throughout the district 
is now commercial but unique provisions limit the 
size of ground floor retail uses and hotels. New con- 
textual mixed buildings house a growing residential 




iiriii^" 

rnmrn 

TTTlTT'TI 



.-#** 




community while special rules encourage a mix of 
uses by allowing light industries. Part of north- 
ern Tribeca has been mapped as an hiclusiouary 
Housing designated area. 

UNION SQUARE SPECIAL DISTRICT 



(Manhattan) 




The Special Union Square District (US) was 
established to revitalize the area around Union 
Square by encouraging mixed use development. 
To enhance the compatibility of new development 
with existing buildings and Union Square Park, the 
district's urban design provisions mandate ground 
floor retail uses, off-street relocation of subway 
stairs and continuity of street walls. Special 
streetscape and signage controls enhance the phys- 
ical appearance of the district. A floor area bonus 
for subway improvements is available by sj^ecial 
permit of the City Planning Commission, 




UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT 
SPECIAL DISTRICT (Manhattan) 

The Special United Nations Development District (U) 
implements a developiTient plan for the area 
adjacent to the 
United Nations, 
consisting pri- 
marily of the 
United Nations 
Plaza buildings. 
A unified design 
concept is a 
major feature of 
the district regulations. 



WEST CHELSEA SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Manhattan) 

The Special West Chelsea District (WCh) provides 
a regulatory framework for the continued develop- 
ment of a dynamic mixed residential and commercial 
area centered around the public open space created 
by reuse of the High Line, a former elevated rail 
line running north-south through the length of the 
district. Bounded generally by Tenth and Eleventh 
Avenues between West 16''' and West 30"' Streets, 
the district contains regulations to facilitate enjoy- 
ment of the High Line including a floor area transfer 
mechanism to preserve light, air and views as well as 
floor area bonuses related to access and open space 





development. Special 
bulk regulations re- 
spond to unique con- 
ditions along the High 
Line and the areas sur- 
rounding West Chelsea, 
including the Hudson 
River to the west, the 
higher-density Special 
Hudson Yards District 
to the north, and the 
lower-scale Chelsea 
I Historic District to the 
east.The Iiicltisioiiary 
J-*j Housing designated 
area Program facili- 
tates development of affordable housing to ensure 
an economically diverse neighborhood. 

WILLETS POINT SPECIAL DISTRICT 

(Queens) 

The Special Willets Point District (WP) is part of 
a comprehensive redevelopment strategy aimed at 
transforming a largely underutilized 61-acre site 
into a lively, mixed use, sustainable community 
and a regional retail and entertainment destina- 
tion. The district is located to the east of Citi Field 
baseball stadium, and is near the USTA Billie Jean 
King Tennis Center and Flushing Meadows-Corona 
Park. District regulations ensure the achievement 
of the master plan for the site by specifying the 
location of uses, including retail, office, hotel and 
cinema uses, as well as a convention center. Site 
planning and design provisions specify maximum 
block dimensions, minimum street and sidewalk 
dimensions, building heights and setbacks, roof 
design requirements, and minimum amounts and 
locations of publicly accessible open space. 



Zoning Districts 


USE CROUPS 


Residential 

Use 

Croups 


Community 
Facility 

Use 
Croups 


Retail & Commercial 
Use Croups 


Cen 
Ser- 
vice 


Mfg. 

Use 

Croups 


1 2 


3 


4 


5 6 7 8 


1 9 1 10 


1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 


16 


17 1 18 


1 


R1 R2 

Single-family detached 






































R3A* R3X R4A R5A 

Single- & two-family 
detached 






































R3-1 R4-1* 

Single- & two-family 
detaclicd & semi-detached 






































R4B* 

Single- & two-family detached, 
semi-detached & attached 






































R3-2 R4 R5 R5B* R6-R10 

Detached, semi-detached 
& attaclied 










































. ^. . . . 


1 


Commercial uisiricts i 


CI 

Local Retail 






































C2 

ioco/ Service 






































C3 

Woterfront & Recreation 






































C4 

General Commercial 






































C5 

Central Commercial 
(Restricted) 






































C6 

Central Commercial 
(General) 






































C7 

Commercial Amusements 






































C8 

General Service 






































Manufacturing District 


1 


Ml 

i./gi/?f Manufacturing 


















1 


















M2 

Medium Manufacturing 






































M3 

Heov)/ Manufacturing 






































* Zero lot line buildings permiUe 


d 





































USE GROUP CHARTS 

Three use group charts in the Zoning Resolution, combined above, identify the use groups permitted in 
residential, commercial and manufacturing districts. The charts are found at the beginning of Chapter 2 (Use 
Regulations) of the residential, commercial and manufacturing articles in the Resolution. 



Chapter 7 

Use Groups 



Permitted uses are grouped in 18 use group's based 
on the similarity and compatibility of their func- 
tions. The use groups are permitted in appropriate 
zoning districts either as-of-riglit or, if certain 
conditions are met, hy special ffcrmit. Uses allowed 
in residential, commercial and manufacturing 
districts are listed in Chapter 2 of tlae applicable 
article of the Resolution. Use group charts illustrate 
which use groups are permitted within each zon- 
ing district. Uses that require a special permit are 
specified in both the article relating to the district 
and Article Vll. 

Use Croup 1 

Single-family detached residential development 

Use Croup 2 

All other types of residential development designed 
for permanent occupancy 

Use Group 3 

Community facilities, such as schools, libraries, 
museums, college dormitories, nursing homes and 
residential facilities for special needs populations 

Use Group 4 

Community facilities, such as houses of worship, 
community centers, hospitals, ambulatory health 
care facilities and non-profit facilities without sleep- 
ing accommodations 

Use Group 5 
Transient hotels 

Use Group 6 

Retail and service establishments that serve local 
shopping needs, such as food and small clothing 
stores, beauty parlors and dry cleaners 

Use Croup 7 

Home maintenance and repair services, such as 
plumbing and electrical shops which serve nearby 
residential areas 



Use Croup 8 

Amusement establishments such as small bowling 
alleys and movie theaters, and service uses, such as 
upholstery and appliance repair shops 

Use Croup 9 

Services to business establishments and other ser- 
vices, such as printers or caterers 

U.«e Group 1© 

Large retail establishments such as department stores 

and appliance stores which serve a large area 

Use Group 11 

Custom manufacturing activities such as art needle- 
work and jewelry manufacturing 

Use Croup 12 

Large entertainment facilities such as arenas and 
indoor skating rinks which draw large numbers of 
people 

Use Croup 13 

Low coverage or open uses, such as golf driving 
ranges, children's small amusement parks, camps 
and banquet hails 

Use Group 14 

Facilities for boating and related activities which are 

suitable in waterfront recreation areas 

Use Croup 15 

Large commercial amusement establishments, 
including typical amusement park attractions 

Use Group 16 

Semi-industrial uses, including automotive uses and 
other services, such as custom woodworking and 
welding shops 

Use Croup 17 

Light industrial uses that can normally conform to 
high performance standards 

Use Croup 18 

Heavy industrial uses 




Sign Regulations in Commercial and Manufacturing Districts 



District 



CI C2 



C3 



C5 (exc. C5-4) 



C4 C5-4 C6 
(exc. C6-5 C6-7) 



C6-5 C6-7 C7 



C8 



Ml M2 M3 



Sign 
Type 



Accessory 



Accessory 



Accessory 



Accessory 



Accessory 



Advertising 



Accessory 



Advertising 



Accessory 



Size of 
individual Sign 

(max) 



150 sf 



50 sf 



200 sf 



500 sf 



No restriction 



lllunninated or flashing: SOOsf 
Non-illuminated: 750 sf 



Indirect illumination:' 500 sf 
Non-illuminated: 750 sf 



Illuminated or flashing: 500sf 
Indirect illumination: 750 sf* 
Non-illuminated: 1,200 sf- 



Advertising 



Indirect illumination:'' 750 sf* 
Non-illuminated: 1,200 sf 



Surface Area 

for All Signs' 

on a Zoning Lot 



3 X street frontage 
(150 sf total) 



50 sf (total) 



3 X street frontage 
(200 sf total) 



5 X street frontage 
(500 sf total) 



No restriction 



6 X street frontage 



6 X street frontage 



Surface Area for 
Illuminated or 
Flashing^ Signs 



Illuminated only: 
3 X street frontage 
(50 sf total) 



Not permitted 



Not permitted 



5 X street frontage 
(500 sf total)' 



No restriction 



5 X street frontage 



5 X street frontage 



Height Above 
Curb Level 

(max) 



25 ft 



25 ft 



25 ft 



40 ft 



No restriction 



40 ft illuminated; 
58 ft non-illuminated 
or indirectly illuminated 



40 ft illuminated; 
75 ft non-illuminated 
or indirectly illuminated' 



Up to 3 Illuminated non-flaihing window signs totaling no more than 8 square feet are exempt 

Illuminated signs tiiat cinange periodically to show the time, temperature or similar information are not considered flashing signs 

Flashing signs are not permitted in C6-1A districts 

Illuminated or flashing signs are not permitted 

500 square feet in Ml districts that allow residential use 

750 square feet in Ivl1 districts that allow residential use 

58 feet for indirectly illuminated signs within 500 feet of a residence district or CI through C6 district 



Chapter 8 

Signs 

A sign is any writing, picture or symbol on or 
attached to a building or other structure such 
as a freestanding billboard. Two types of signs 
are regulated by zoning. An accessory sign must be 
on the same zoning tot as the use that it describes or 
publicizes. An advertising sign is located on a differ- 
ent zoning lot from the business, profession, product, 
service or entertainment that it is promoting. 

Sign regulations are more restrictive in residential 
districts and more permissive in commercial and 
manufacturing districts. A non-illuminated sign 
that displays only non-commercial copy, such as an 
election poster, is not subject to the sign regulations 
provided it is no larger than 12 square feet. There are 
no restrictions on flags and banners located on zon- 
ing lots used by certain community facilities, such as 
museums and schools. 

Residence districts and residential uses in com- 
mercial districts are permitted to have signs in the 
form of nameplates or identification signs, subject 
to number, size, height and projection provisions 
suitable for residential neighborhoods. 
Regulations for permitted signs in commercial and 
manufacturing districts are shown in the chart 
in this chapter which summarizes the permitted 
size, illumination and height regulations that 
apply generally to such signs. Accessory signs are 
permitted in all commercial and manufacturing 
districts. Advertising signs are restricted to C6-5, 
C6-7, C7, C8 and all manufacturing districts. Small 
illuminated signs, including signs with indirect 
illumination, are permitted in CI and C2 districts 
but illuminated or flashing signs are not permitted 
in C3 and C5 (except C5-4) districts. Illuminated 
or flashing signs are permitted in C4, C5-4, C6, 
C7 and C8 districts although flashing signs are not 
allowed in C6-1A districts. 

In all commercial districts, except C6-5, C6-7 or C7 
districts, permitted signs may project over the street 
line by 12 inches, and up to 18 inches for double- or 
multi-faced signs. In C6-5, C6-7 and C7 districts, a 
sign may project up to eight feet over the sidewalk. 
Accessory signs on awnings and canopies that proj- 
ect over the sidewalk are also regulated. 



Any sign located within 200 feet of and in view of a 
putflic park with an area of at least one-half acre or 
a designated arterial highway is subject to additional 
regulations. In general, advertising signs are not 
permitted and accessory signs can be no larger than 
500 square feet. Larger signs are allowed beyond 
200 feet upon certification by the Chairperson of 
the City Planning Commission. 

Other regulations limit the size, location, angle and 
type of signs that are within 100 feet of a residence 
district or public park larger than one-half acre in size. 
In manufacturing districts, any illuminated sign located 
within 500 feet of a residence district or a commercial 
district (except C7 or C8 districts) must face away from 
that district boundary by more than 90 degrees. 

In all commercial districts except C6-5, C6-7, C7 and C8 
districts, no sign may be located on a roof. Rules limit 
wall signs that extend above a parapet wall or roof 

Some special purpose districts have sign regulations 
that are tailored to specific planning and design 
goals. In the heart of the Special Midtown District, 
for example, the unique appearance of Times Square, 
celebrated for its glittering advertising signs, is 
sustained by requiring that illuminated signs cover 
much of the surface area of new buildings. 

The maximum surface area for all signs on a zon- 
ing lot in a commercial or manufacturing district is 
expressed as a multiple of the street frontage of the 
zoning lot. For the purposes of determining surface 
area only, separate ground floor establishments are 
considered separate zoning lots. For example, for a 
building in a C2-3 district that contains a butcher 
shop, a bakery and a candle store, each store may 
have signs whose total surface area can be up to 
three times the width of each shop's frontage 
(maximum of 150 square feet). On corner lots in 
most districts, the applicable size or surface area 
of a sign may be applied to each side of a building 
facing intersecting streets. 

Additional sign regulations relate to special urban 
design regulations, non-conforming uses, adult 
establishments and waterfront areas. 




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Chapter 9 

Community Facilities 



Community facilities of all kinds— schools 
and colleges, hospitals and doctors' offices, 
houses of worship, day care centers, muse- 
ums and libraries— provide essential services, jobs 
and revenue in neighborhoods throughout the city. 
In some neighborhoods, however, they can be a 
mixed blessing because of their size or the traffic 
congestion they may bring. Since 1961, New York 
City zoning has been balancing the needs of these 
important public and private institutions with 
their effects on the communities in which their 
services are provided. The facilities are permitted in 
most of the city's residential, commercial and light 
manufacturing districts but use, bulk and parking 
regulations differ according to type of facility and 
zoning district. 

Use Regulations 

Community facilities are listed in Use Groiii^ 3, 
which includes schools, dormitories, nursing homes 
and non-profit residential facilities for people with 
special needs, and Use Grout' 4, which includes 
hospitals, ambulatory health care facilities, houses 
of worship, community centers and other facilities 
without sleeping accommodations. Most of these 
facilities are allowed as-of-right in all residence 
districts to accommodate their need to be near the 
people they serve. Some facilities, however, serve 
a wider area and may be subject to certain restric- 
tions. For example, ambulatory health care facilities 
are not allowed in Rl and R2 districts, and require 
a special yermit from the Board of Standards and 
Appeals (BSA) if they are larger than 1,500 square 
feet and located in districts limited to one- and 
two-family homes. Nursing homes are not allowed 
in Rl and R2 districts and required to obtain a 
City Planning Commission (CPC) special permit 
in certain districts. 




Middle Collegiate Clnirch 



In commercial dis- 
tricts, except C7 
and C8, commu- 
nity facilities are 
generally allowed 
as-of-right. In Ml 
(light manufac- 
turing) districts, i 
only houses of | ^ 
worship, some | 
medical facilities » 
and open recre- 
ational uses, such 
as parks and tennis courts, are allowed as-of-right. 
Use Group 3 facilities, including libraries, college 
dormitories and other facilities with sleeping accom- 
modations, are generally not permitted in either 
C8 or Ml districts in order to avoid incompatible 
land uses. Use Group 4 facilities, which do not have 
sleeping accommodations, are permitted as-of-right 
in C8 districts. Schools require a BSA special permit 
in both C8 and Ml districts, and other facilities, 
such as philanthropic or nonprofit institutions, are 
allowed in Ml districts only by CPC special permit. 
Community facilities are not allowed in M2 or M3 
manufacturing districts. 

Bulk Regulations 

In many of the zoning districts in which community 
facilities are permitted, bulk regulations, including 
maximum permitted floor area ratios (FAR) and lot 
coverage, are less restrictive for community facility 
buildings than for other uses permitted in the same 
district. The 1961 Zoning Resolution permitted com- 
munity facilities to be larger than other buildings so 
that service providers could operate efficiently on 
sites of a reasonable size. Unlike other buildings in 
certain residential districts, community facilities may 
also extend into a required rear yard (although they 



may be subject to more restrictive side yard rules). 
However, zoning amendments adopted since 1961 
have tended to lessen these differences, particularly in 
lower-density and contextual residential districts. 

In contextual residential and commercial districts, 
the maximum permitted FAR is generally the same 
for residential and community facility buildings. 
In non-contextual residential and commercial dis- 
tricts, and in Ml districts, the maximum FAR for 
community facility buildings is generally higher 
than it is for other buildings. (See tables here and 
in Appendix E for comparative floor area ratios in 
each zoning district.) 

In Rl and R2 districts, community facilities are 
limited to the same maximum FAR as residential 
buildings unless a special permit is granted by 
the City Planning Commission or the Board of 
Standards and Appeals. In R3 through R9 districts, 
nursing homes and non-profit residential facilities 
also require a special permit to obtain the higher 
community facility FAR. 

In commerciat overlay districts, the maximum FAR 
for community facility buildings is determined by 
the residence district within which the overlay is 
mapped. For example, the maximum FAR for a com- 
munity facility building in a C1-2/R4 district is 2.0, 
and in a C1-2/R8X district, the maximum is 6.0. 

Special bulk rules apply when community facilities 
and other uses are located in the same building. 
(See Zoning Analysis 4, in Appendix A, for a mixed 
building with residential and community facility 
uses in an R7 district.) 

Parking Regulations 

Off-street parking requirements for community 
facilities are typically based on the floor area, num- 
ber of beds, or capacity of the facility. In general, 
the higher the density of the district, the lower the 
parking requirement. For example, off-street parking 
is not required for most community facilities in R7-2 
through RIO districts and in commercial districts 
with equivalent densities. 



Maximum Floor Area Ratios 

Residential and Community Facility Buildings 

in Residence Districts 


Zoning 
District 


Residential 
FAR' » 


Community 
Facility FAR 


R1-1, Rl-2, R1-2A 


0.50 


0.50-' 


R2, R2A 


0.50 


0.50' 


R2X 


1.02 


0.50- 


R3A, R3X, R3-1, R3-2 


0.60 


1.00" 


R4, R4-1, R4A, R4B 


0.90 


2.00- 


R4 Infill 


1.35 


2.00' 


R5 


1.25 


2.00" 


R5A 


1.10 


2.00" 


R5B 


1.35 


2.00" 


R5D 


2.00 


2.00 


R5 Infill 


1.65 


2.00" 


R6 


2.43^ 


4.80° 


R6A 


3.00 


3.00 


R6B 


2.00 


2.00 


R7-1 


3.44^ 


4.800 


R7-2 


3.44'> 


6.50" 


R7A 


4.00 


4.00 


R7D 


4.20 


4.20 


R7X 


5.00 


5.00 


R8 


6.025 


6.50'* 


R8A 


6.02 


6.50'' 


R8B 


4.00 


4.00' 


R8X 


6.02 


6.00 


R9 


7.52 


10.00' 


R9A 


7.52 


7.50 


R9D, R9X 


9.00 


9.00 


RIO, R10A, R10X 


10.00» 


10.00° 



' Includes attic allowance up to 20%, where applicable 

^ Up to 1.00 FAR only by CPC special permit 

' Up to 1.60 FAR for deep front yard/wide side yards, except for nursing 
homes and non-profit residential facilities which are limited to residential 
FAR as-of -right 

" Up to 2.40 FAR for deep front yard/wide side yards, except for nursing homes 
and non-profit residential facilities which are limited to as-of-right residential 
FAR, except FAR is 1.27 in R5, R5A, and R5B districts 

■ Under Quality Housing Program, maximum residential FAR may be higher 

" Nursing homes & nonprofit residential facilities limited to residential FAR 
except by special permit 

'5.10 FAR permitted in Manhattan Community District 8 

" In R6-RI0 districts, FAR may differ with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 

' Up to 12.0 FAR with public plaza bonus in R9 and RIO districts 



Chapter 10 

Off-Street Parking 



In New York City, most new buildings are 
required to provide off-street parking spaces 
and loading berths for car and truck traffic 
likely to be generated by the uses within the build- 
ing. The amount of required accessory parking is 
governed by the expected demand, based on the type 
and intensity of the permitted uses and density of 
the zoning district. 

Zoning determines the minimum number of spaces 
required and the maximum number of spaces per- 
mitted. Zoning controls where parking is permitted, 
the location and dimensions of parking spaces and 
curtf cuts, the use of open space or indoor facilities 
for parking, and the surfacing and screening of park- 
ing areas and loading berths. 

Parking rules are related to proximity to public 
transit. Requirements are generally high in areas 
characterized by low density and high automobile 
ownership and low in areas with high density and 
convenient transit access. In all medium- and higher- 
density districts, waivers are available where small 
numbers of spaces would be required. In the city's 
business districts, where public transit is always 
near, most commercial developments are exempt 
from parking requirements. In theMauhattau Core 
and portions of Long Island City, off-street parking 
is permitted, subject to restrictions on the number 
of spaces, but not required. The Manhattan Core 
encompasses the area from the Battery to West 
110"^ Street on the West Side and East 96"' Street 
on the East Side. 

Except in Rl and R2 districts, required residential 
parking can be located off-site in adjacent commer- 
cial or manufacturing zoning districts, within a 
specified distance. For commercial and community 
facility uses, off-site parking is permitted in the 
same or adjoining commercial or manufacturing 
zoning district; off-site parking for manufacturing 
uses can only be within manufacturing districts. 



PARKING FOR RESIDiNTIAL USES 

The number of dwelling units on a zoning lot, the pat- 
terns of automobile ownership and use, the availability 
of mass transit, and the neighborhood streetscape 
character determine residential parking regulations. 

Required off-street parking spaces 

In Rl through R4 districts, which are mostly devel- 
oped with detached and semi-detached residences 
or low-rise attached buildings, each dwelling unit 
must have at least one off-street parking space. For 
infill housing in f^redowinantly huilt-uf^ areas of 
R4 and R5 districts, which has greater bulk and 
lot coverage, two parking spaces are required for 
a three-family building. In Lower Density Growth 
Management Areas where car ownership is higher, 
however, two off-street parking spaces are required 
for a one-family house and off-street parking must 
be provided for at least 150 percent of dwelling units 
in all other types of residences. 

In R5 through RIO districts outside the Manhattan 
Core, required parking is generally provided in a 
grouf parking facility. The minimum number of 
spaces required is a percentage of the total dwelling 
units based on the permitted density of the district. 
For example, in R5 districts, where a typical develop- 
ment consists of three-story town houses, parking 
must be provided for 85 percent of the dwelling units. 
In the higher-density apartment house districts (R8, 
R9, RIO) outside the Manhattan Core, parking is 
required for 40 percent of the units. 

Required off-street parking for new residential build- 
ings in R6 through RIO districts is often reduced or 
waived for small zoning lots. Parking can also be 
waived on lots of any size in these districts if fewer 
than five or 15 spaces would be required, depend- 
ing on the district. The number of required parking 
spaces is reduced for Inclusionary Housing, publicly 
assisted housing and non-profit housing for the 
elderly because residents tend to own fewer cars. 




Lower-density parking (R4 district) 



Location of off-street parking spaces and 
curb cuts 

By determining where parking may be located, zon- 
ing ensures the safety of pedestrians, enhances and 
preserves the streetscape and promotes the avail- 
abihty of on-street parking. Zoning also controls 
the number of curb cuts permitted on a zoning lot, 
which could disrupt the pedestrian experience. 

All Rl and R2 districts and R3A, R3X, R4A and R5A 
lower-density contextual districts are character- 
ized by one- and two-family detached homes with 
landscaped front yards bordered by sidewalks. This 
pleasant streetscape is preserved by zoning which 
restricts the location of required parking in the front 
yard. For lots that have a frontage of less than 35 feet, 
parking must be in an eight foot wide side yard or 
in a rear yard, and driveways to access parking must 
be within the sUe lot ribbon. (A side lot ribbon is 
an eight to 10 foot wide strip, open or enclosed, that 
runs from the front to the rear of the zoning lot along 
a s/Wc lot line.) On wider lots, vehicles can be parked 
in driveways that access an in-house garage that is 
not within the side lot ribbon. On-street parking is 
supported by requiring at least 16 feet between curb 
cuts and, depending upon the district, 16 to 18 feet 
of uninterrupted zoning lot frontage. 

In some lower-density districts, the maximum 
amount of floor area for a house may be increased by 



300 square feet if a detached garage 
is located in the rear yard. This 
incentive ensures a long driveway 
for several cars, encourages a land- 
scaped front yard and preserves 
curbside parking spaces. 

In lower-density contextual dis- 
tricts that allow semi-detached 
residences (R3-1 and R4-1), park- 
ing is allowed in a side yard, a 
rear yard or an in-house garage. 
On narrow lots, driveways that 
access an in-house garage must be 
located in a side lot ribbon. 

Lower-density, multifamily dis- 
tricts (R3-2, R4 and R5) generally 
have low-rise attached houses and small multifam- 
ily apartment houses. Parking in these districts is 
allowed in a side yard, rear yard or in a garage inside 
the building. On narrow lots in these districts, park- 
ing is allowed in front of a building if the driveway 
is within the side lot ribbon. On lots wider than 35 
feet, parking is also allowed in a front yard, outside 
of the side lot ribbon, if the curb cut accesses no more 
than two spaces and is spaced at least 16 feet apart. 
The maximum width of a single curb cut is 15 feet, 
including splays; the maximum width of a curb cut 
serving a paired driveway is 18 feet, including splays. 
The location and width of curb cuts is mandated to 
ensure adequate access to the driveways and allocate 
sufficient space for required front yard plantings and 
sidewalk planting strips, A larger parking facility of 
five or more spaces is allowed in the front yard of 
a building, provided it meets the landscaping and 
screening requirements. 

In medium- and higher-density R6, R7 and R8 
districts, group parking facilities must be located 
inside the building or in a side or rear yard, except 
for zoning lots developed with heigtit factor build- 
ings. The number of curb cuts allowed on any street 
frontage of a zoning lot depends on the size of the 
group parking facility. For facilities with fewer than 
50 spaces, where not more than one vehicle is likely 
to use the curb cut at the same time, one curb cut 
with a maximum width of 12 feet, including splays, 
is permitted. For facilities with at least 50 spaces, 



where vehicles may be more Ukely to enter and exit 
simultaneously, the maximum width of the curb 
cut is 22 feet, including splays. Alternatively, two 
curb cuts, each with a maximum width of 12 feet, 
including splays, spaced at least 60 feet apart, are 
allowed for an entrance and exit to a group parking 
facility with 50 or more spaces. 

To preserve the character of R4B, R5B, R6B, R7B 
and R8B districts, which are generally mapped in 
rowhouse neighborhoods, curb cuts for driveways 
are not permitted on zoning lots with less than 40 
feet of street frontage. Parking is usually waived 
when only one parking space is required. 

PARKING FOR COMMERCIAL USES 

Accessory parking is required for most new com- 
mercial developments in commercial districts, 
except in the high-density areas of the Manhattan 
Core, Long Island City and the Special Downtown 
Brooklyn District. As in residential districts, less 
parking is required as the permitted density in a 
district increases. 

Commercial parking requirements are highly com- 
plex, reflecting the amount of traffic produced by 
the requirements of the various commercial uses, 
their size and proximity to mass transit, in addition 
to the zoning districts in which they are located. 
Commercial uses are divided into nine jmrking 
requirement categories (PRC) on the basis of their 
traffic-generating characteristics. Within each cat- 
egory, it is the size of the development and the den- 
sity of the zoning district that generally determines 
the parking requirements. In low-density districts, 
all developments, unless they are very small, are 
required to provide parking; in medium- and high- 



density districts, only very large developments are 
required to provide parking. For example, a 5,000 
square foot, high volume drugstore in a low-density 
Cl-2 district must provide 17 parking spaces — one 
parking space for every 300 square feet of floor 
area — while the same drugstore in Midtown is 
exempt from any parking requirement. Where the 
size of the development is not an accurate indicator 
of need, required parking may be based on the num- 
ber of employees or guest rooms, or the capacity of 
theaters, restaurants and other places of assembly. 

In manufacturing districts that require parking, 
permitted commercial developments have the same 
parking requirements as commercial uses in C8-1 
districts. New office buildings and most general 
retail developments in manufacturing zones require 
one space per 300 square feet of development. 

PARKING FOR MANUFACTURING USES 

Parking requirements for manufacturing uses 
also vary according to the use, size and location 
of the building. Some manufacturing districts 
(Ml-4, Ml-5, Ml-6, M2-3, M2-4 and M3-2) are 
exempt from parking requirements because they 
are mapped in areas near public transportation. In 
all other districts (Ml-1, Ml-2, Ml-3, M2-1, M2-2 
and M3-1), new manufacturing facilities require 
one parking space for every three employees or 
every 1,000 square feet of floor area, whichever 
requires more spaces. Warehouses and other storage 
establishments, which are often large spaces with 
relatively few employees needing off-street parking, 
require one space for every three employees or every 
2,000 square feet of floor area, whichever requires 
fewer spaces. 



Basic Parking Requirements in Commercial and Manufacturing Districts 


District 


Use' 


Number of Required 

Spaces Per (Built) 

Square Foot^ 


Waived If 
Less Than 


Cl-1 C2-1 C4-1 


General Retail/Office 


1 per 150 sq ft 


10 spaces 


Cl-2 C2-2 C4-2 C8-1 

Ml-1 Ml-2 Ml-3 M2-1 M2-2 M3-1 


General Retail/Office 


1 per 300 sq ft 


15 spaces 


CI -3 C2-3 C4-2A C4-3 C4-3A C8-2 


General Retail/Office 


1 per 400 sq ft 


25 spaces 


CI -4 C2-4 C4-4 C4-5D C8-3 


General Retail/Office 


1 per 1,000 sq ft 


40 spaces 


CI -5 CI -6 CI -7 CI -8 C1-9C2-5 C2-6 C2-7 C2-8 
C4-4A C4-5 C4-5A C4-5X C4-6 C4-7 C5 C6 C8-4 
Ml-4 Ml-5 Ml-6 M2-3 M2-4 M3-2 


General Retail/Office 


None 


~ 



As listed in Parking Requirement Category B or Bl 
May be reduced by BSA special permit lor B 1 uses 



PARKING FOR COMMUNITY FACILITIES 

Accessory off-street parking for community facili- 
ties in residential districts is based on the type and 
size of the facility and the density of the district. 
Parking requirements are expressed as a ratio of 
parking spaces to floor area (libraries), tot area (skat- 
ing rinks), number of beds (college dormitories and 
nursing homes), persons-rated capacity (recreation 
centers) or persons-rated capacity of the largest room 
of assembly (houses of worship). Parking is always 
required in Rl through R5 districts (except for 
schools in R3, R4 and R5 districts). A lesser amount 
of parking is usually required in R6, R7-1 and R7B 
districts. Parking is generally not required in the 
higher-density residential districts {FAR of 4.0 or 
more), except for hospitals which must provide one 
parking space for every 10 beds. Waivers and reduc- 
tions are available for smaller community facilities 
based on certain inherent factors. For example, 
waivers are available for houses of worship whose 
congregants live nearby. 

In commercial districts and Ml districts, parking 
requirements for community facilities vary accord- 
ing to use, size and location. In coinmerciat overlay 
districts, community facility parking is governed by 
the applicable commercial district rather than the 
underlying residence district. 

LOADING BERTH REQUIREMENTS 

Loading berths are required for commercial, manu- 
facturing and community facility uses, such as 
office buildings, warehouses, hospitals, prisons and 
funeral parlors, where trucks and other vehicles 
are routinely loaded and unloaded. The number of 
required berths varies with the zoning district, the 
size of the establishment and the type of use. More 
berths are usually required in lower-density districts 
than in higher-density districts for the same amount 
of floor area. To prevent trucks from clogging streets 
and sidewalks, the regulations also control the size 
and location of berths, surfacing materials, screening 
and access requirements. 

PUBLIC PARKING GARAGES AND 
PARKING LOTS 

Public park hig garages and fmblic parking lots, with 
a capacity of up to 150 spaces, are allowed as-of-right 



in most commercial and manufacturing districts; 
public parking garages and public parking lots with 
more than 150 spaces in lower- and medium-density 
districts require a special permit. In CI districts, 
public parking garages and parking lots with up to 
100 spaces are allowed only by special permit. In the 
Manhattan Core and the Special Downtown Brooklyn 
District, a special permit is required for a public park- 
ing garage of any size. 

REQUIRED LANDSCAPING FOR 
PARKING LOTS 

Accessory parking lots for commercial and commu- 
nity facility buildings that have at least 18 spaces 
or 6,000 square feet, whichever is less, must be 
landscaped to visually improve the appearance of 
the lot and promote sustainable practices, such as 
storm water management and the reduction of the 
urban heat island effect. The new standards man- 
date screening of parking lots along the perimeter 
of a street, as well as landscaped planting islands 
throughout the parking area. 

In addition to new commercial and community facility 
buildings, these standards apply to mixed buildings 
where residential uses occupy less than 30 percent of 
the building and enlargements where the commercial 
or community facility floor area, or the number of 



















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parking spaces for commercial and community facil- 
ity uses, is increased by at least 20 percent. 

Accessory parking areas with at least 18 spaces or 6,000 
square feet that front on a street must be screened along 
the perimeter of the street with a seven foot wide bio- 
swale planted with shrubs and ornamental trees. 

Bioswales, or storm water retention cells, are land- 
scaped areas that maximize storm water retention 
and minimize stress on the city sewer system. This 
will ensure that planted areas retain sufficient rain 
water to flourish, and enhance the parking area. In 
addition to trees, all bioswales must be planted with 
shrubs and ground cover. Landscape plans must be 
filed by a licensed landscape architect. 

Accessory parking areas with at least 36 spaces or 
12,000 square feet, in addition to the perimeter 
screening along the street, must provide one shade 
tree for every eight parking spaces, each tree set 
within a planting island. Therefore, a parking lot 



( Shade\ 




with 36 spaces would require 4'/2 trees, rounded up 
to five trees, set within five planting islands, evenly 
distributed throughout the parking lot. Each plant- 
ing island must be a bioswale with a dimension of 
at least eight feet and a minimum of 150 square 
feet. Parking lots with at least 150,000 square feet 
must provide larger planting islands between every 
other row of parking stalls. 



One bicycle space must be included in the parking 
lot for every ten vehicle parking spaces, up to 200 
vehicle spaces. Above that capacity, one bike parking 
space is required for every 100 cars. 

BICYCLE PARKING IN BUILDINGS 

Bicycling as a mode of transportation generates 
fitness and mobility for riders and alleviates traffic 
congestion, improves air quality and reduces carbon 
emissions. New developments, including multifam- 
ily residential, community facility and commercial 
buildings, must provide secure, enclosed bicycle 
parking facilities. 

Provision of bike parking facilities is required for 
new developments, enlargements where floor area 
is increased by at least 50 percent, residential con- 
versions, accessory parking garages with 35 or more 
vehicle parking spaces, or accessory parking lots with 
18 or more vehicle parking spaces. Depending upon 
the use, a percentage of required bike parking space 
does not count towards floor area. 

For multifamily residential buildings, one space is 
required for two dwelling units but the requirement 
is waived for buildings that have less than 10 dwell- 
ing units. For community facilities and commercial 
uses, the requirement is based on the floor area 
occupied by the use and is waived if three or fewer 
spaces are required. In public parking garages, one 
bike parking space must be provided for every 10 
vehicle parking spaces. On college campuses, half of 
required bike parking may be located outdoors. 




Interior bike parl<ing facility 



m 







Largc-icalc community facilily in tlie East Village 



Chapter 1 1 

Zoning Tools 



LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT 

A large-scale development is a development 
on a large zoning lot or several zoning lots 
planned as a unit that are contiguous or 
only separated by a street. In order to promote good 
site planning for these types of developments and 
their surrounding neighborhoods, given this unique 
nature of scale, the City Planning Commission 
(CPC) may modify the underlying zoning district 
rules to allow greater flexibility of bulk and open 
space on the site. To do this, the Commission may 
allow site plans that shift floor area, dwelling units, 
lot coverage and open space on a development site 
without regard to zoning lot lines or district bound- 
aries, allowing use, bulk and parking configurations 
which would otherwise not be allowed. 

In order to approve a large-scale development, the 
CPC must find that the redistribution of bulk and 
open space will result in a better site plan and a 
better relationship among buildings and open areas 
with the neighborhood than would be possible 
without modifying the underlying zoning. 

Special permits and authorizations are available for 
three types of large-scale developments, depending 
upon the zoning district, the intended mix of uses and 
the size of the development. 

A targe-scale general develojnnettt is a development 
or enlargement located in a medium- or high-density 
commercial or manufacturing district that must 
contain uses allowed by the underlying zoning 
district. Located on a tract of land comprising at 
least 1.5 acres (65,340 sq. ft.), a general large-scale 
development may include existing buildings, pro- 
vided they form an integral part of the develop- 
ment. In C5 and C6 districts, a development of 
at least five acres (217,800 sq. ft.) may include an 
existing building that is not an integral part of the 



development provided the building covers less than 
15 percent of the development and is not included 
in the bulk modification. When a development is 
located partially in a residence district or in a CI, 
C2, C3 or C4-1 district, and partially in a commer- 
cial or manufacturing district, the commercial floor 
area may not be distributed within the residential 
or lower-scale commercial districts. 

A large-scale residential development is a develop- 
ment located entirely in a residence district or in a 
CI, C2, C3 or C4-1 district. It must be situated on a 
tract of vacant land comprising at least three acres 
(130,680 sq. ft.) and contain a minimum of 500 
dwelling units, or at least 1.5 acres with a minimum 
of three principal residential buildings. Because these 
developments are designed predominantly for resi- 
dential uses and a population of differing family sizes, 
planning ensures a mix of apartment sizes to accom- 
modate different family groups, variations in building 
configuration and siting, open space that meets the 
passive and active recreational needs of residents, and 
protection and preservation of natural features on the 
site. On-site community facilities are encouraged. 
Commercial uses in the development are restricted 
to uses permitted in CI, C2 and C4 districts. The 
Quality Housing Program is inapplicable. 

A large-scale community facility development is a 

development or enlargement located entirely in a 
residence district or in a CI, C2, C3 or C4-1 district 
that is used predominantly for community facility 
uses but can contain any residential and commercial 
uses permitted within the underlying districts. The 
development must be on a tract of land comprising 
at least three acres, which may include existing 
buildings provided that they form an integral part 
of the development. 



STREETSCAPE IMPROVEMENTS 



New York City has adopted a number of measures 
to promote green streetscapes in residential neigh- 
borhoods throughout the city in order to foster the 
sustainabihty goals of the PlaNYC 2030 initiative. 
Zoning regulations control planting elements, 
such as front yard planting, street trees and plant- 
ing strips to improve the appearance of local 
streetscapes, benefit the environment by increasing 
the amount of landscaped open space and permeable 
surfaces and, generally, improve the quality of life. 

Front Yard Planting 

The front yard planting regulations are applicable to 
new buildings in Rl through R5 districts. To ensure 
an equitable and proportionate distribution of 
planted areas, minimum standards for the amount 
of plantings and the dimensions for planted areas 
are based on the width of the zoning lot. 



'^fV? ': 'fT": 



Rl through RS Districts: Front Yard Planting 


Street frontage of 
zoning lot 


Percentage of front yard 

(min) 


Less than 20 feet 


20 


20 to 34 feet 


25 


35 to 59 feet 


30 


60 feet or greater 


50 



The minimum percentage of planted area in the 
front yard ranges from 20 percent for narrow lots 
to 50 percent for wide lots. A planted area within a 
driveway or parking space doesn't qualify towards 
the minimum planting requirements. On corner lots 
and through lots, the minimum amount of planting 
has to be met on each street frontage. For multiple 
buildings on a single zoning lot, the minimum 
planting requirement is based on the street frontage 
allocated to each building 




Lower-density streetscape in Bellerose 

The minimum width of a planting bed must be at 
least 12 inches to ensure that these planted areas 
have a visual impact on the street, are sustainable 
and are easily maintained over the long term. The 
planted areas can be a combination of grass, ground- 
cover, shrubs, trees or other living plant material. 

Planting regulations also apply to medium- and 
high-density contextual R6 through RIO districts 
and where the optional Quality Housing Program 
is utilized in R6 through RIO districts. When build- 
ings are set back from the street in these zoning 
districts, the entire area in the front of the building 
must be planted, except for the entrances/exits to 
the building or driveways. 




High-density streetscape on the Upper West Side 



Street Trees 

The street tree planting requirements increase the 
street tree canopy, improve air quaUty and foster 
storm water management. Street tree regulations 
apply in all zoning districts to developments, major 
enlargements where the floor area on the zoning 
lot is increased by 20 percent or more, and conver- 
sions of 20 percent or more of the floor area of a 
non-residential building to residential uses. The 




High-density streetscape in the West Village 

requirements are not applicable to industrial uses 
in Use Groups 17 and 18. 

One street tree is required for every 25 feet of street 
frontage of the zoning lot; fractions equal to or 
greater than .50 are rounded up. Semi-industrial and 
automotive uses listed in Use Group 16 are allowed 
to exclude the width of curb cuts from the calcu- 
lations, thereby reducing the number of required 



street trees. The standards for street tree planting 
are set by the Department of Parks & Recreation 
(DPR). The site owner is responsible for planting 
the required street trees and DPR is responsible for 
maintenance. Existing street trees along the street 
frontage can count towards the requirement. 

Where certain site constraints preclude street tree 
planting, for example at locations where street tree 
planting would be infeasible due to conflicts with 
infrastructure, street trees can be planted in an 
alternate off-site location, selected by DPR, which 
must be within the community district or within 
one-half mile of the development site. If DPR cannot 
select a suitable location for a tree, DPR can waive 
the street tree requirement. 

Sidewalk Planting Strips 

Planting strips are generally required between the 
sidewalk and the curb in lower density Rl through 
R5 districts. Sidewalk planting strips benefit the 
environment by capturing storm water and reducing 
strain on sewer infrastructure. Planting strips also 
improve the appearance and character of a neighbor- 
hood and soften the hard appearance of otherwise 
continuous pavement. 

The planting strip regulations apply to all new devel- 
opments, major enlargements and major conversions 
of non-residential buildings to a residential use. 

The width of planting strips must be the great- 
est width feasible given the required minimum 
paved width of the sidewalk established by the 
Department of Transportation. Planting strips are 
required to be planted with grass or ground cover, 
although driveways may cut across a planting strip. 
"toT private roads, the minimum width of a planting 
strip is three feet. 



WATERFRONT ZONINC 



Waterfront zoning maximizes the public's access to, 
and enjoyment of, tfie city's waterfront resources 
while enabling appropriate redevelopment along 
the shoreline. 

New York City adopted special zoning regula- 
tions affecting waterfront development in 1993. 
Waterfront zoning (Article VI, Chapter 2, of the 
Zoning Resolution) addresses the form, size and 
location of new development, and the amount 
and quality of required waterfront public access 
areas. It applies special hulk and use regulations 
to developments on waterfront blocks, as well as 
to piers, platforms and floating structures, and 
mandates waterfront public access along the shore- 
tine. Regulations also allow for the site-specific 
modification of public access requirements through 
Waterfront Access Plans (WAPs) for stretches of 
waterfront parcels with unique conditions and 
opportunities. 

Waterfront zoning regulations apply to properties 
within waterfront blocks, which are blocks adjacent 
to or intersected by the shoreline. 

Waterfront public access regulations were modified 
in 2009 to ensure the development of inviting and 
well-designed public open spaces and promote the 
greening of the waterfront. 

Bulk Regulations 

Waterfront bulk regulations apply to developments 
within waterfront blocks in all zoning districts. 
In low-density residence districts and medium- 
and high-density contextual districts, waterfront 
development generally follows the same bulk rules 
as upland development with slight modifications 
that tailor the regulations to waterfront sites. For 
instance, to maintain an open area along the shore- 
line, waterfront yards substitute for rear yards. 



In non-contextual medium- and high-density dis- 
tricts, taller buildings are permitted, but a sense 
of openness at the water's edge is ensured by rules 
controlling height, the length of buildings parallel to 
the shoreline and the footprint of towers. To create 
a varied skyline at the water's edge, additional floors 
are allowed if the building top is set back along all 
sides of the building. 




Building 5etbacl< at waier's edge in Williamsburg 

To prevent excessive density and bulk generated by 
portions of land under water on a zoning lot, lot 
area seaward of the bulkhead line may not be used 
to generate floor area. Piers and platforms, however, 
may transfer floor area to the landward portion of 
the zoning lot. 

All residential and commercial developments are 
required to provide a waterfront yard that is 30 to 
40 feet wide, depending on the district, along the 
entire shoreline of the zoning lot. 



Public Access Requirements 

In all districts, residential, commercial and commu- 
nity facility developments on waterfront zoning lots 
(except for residential uses in low-density residence 
districts, heavy commercial and industrial uses in 
Use Groups 16, 17 and 18, and certain city infra- 
structure facilities, such as airports) are required 
to provide and maintain public open space at the 
water's edge with pedestrian links to upland com- 
munities. Public access is also mandated on piers, 
platforms and floating structures. Water-dependent 
uses, such as docks for ferries and marinas, are also 
required to provide waterfront public access areas 
but are subject to a more flexible standard. 

Additional rules govern the location, minimum 
size, proportion and design elements for waterfront 
public access areas. 

In districts allowing a floor area ratio (FAR) of 4.0 
or less where a development would require public 
access, a minimum of 15 percent of the lot area must 
be improved and maintained for this purpose. In 
districts permitting an FAR greater than 4.0, the 
minimum lot area dedicated to public access must 
be 20 percent. 

Waterfront public access areas have three compo- 
nents: shore public walkways, upland connections 
and supplemental public access areas. Shore ptiblic 
walkways, which must be located on the waterfront 




pit .-f-^lr. : ^^*WF^-mtlk 





Example of a meanderiny palii in u puhliL puik aluny the Huihon River 



Waterfront public access area and visual corridor 



yard, provide the public with a place to stroll and 
sit along the shoreline, and ufland connections 
give direct access to the shore public walkway 
at regular intervals (at least every 600 feet) from 
upland public streets or other public places. A 
suf^ytemental public access area is required only 
when the combined space devoted to the shore 
public walkway and upland connections does not 
fulfill the minimum square footage requirement for 
public access on a zoning lot. This additional open 
space must complement the shore public walkway, 
having similar design elements that enhance the 
experience along the water's edge. An accessible 
lawn must be provided when the supplemental area 
is of a substantial size. In addition, space for active 
recreation, such as playgrounds or dedicated bike 
paths, may be incorporated into the supplemental 
public access area. 

The entry area to an upland connection, which is 
adjacent to a public place, must have inviting seat- 
ing and an adequate balance of planting and paved 
areas. All entrances must be clearly marked with 
signage, stating hours of operation and other perti- 
nent information. 



To ensure that the waterfront pubHc access area 
is inviting and well-used, the regulations require 
planting, seating, tables, shaded areas, bike racks 
and trash receptacles. In order to promote direct 
physical access to the water, where appropriate, 
guardrails along the shoreline are optional. The 
location and height of fences, gates and other pro- 
tective barriers are limited to guarantee maximum 
visibility within the public open space. 

The location of parking on the ground floor of a 
building adjoining a public street or public access 
area is controlled so that more active uses, such as 
shops and restaurants, will enliven public spaces 
at and near the water's edge. All parking lots on 
waterfront blocks are subject to planting and 
screening requirements. 




Upland connection and visual corridor in Williamsburg 

¥isi»al Corridors 

Waterfront zoning also requires visual corridors, 
which are open areas that provide an unobstructed 
view from upland streets through a waterfront zoning 
lot to the shoreline. Intended to extend existing views 
to the shore from the upland communities, visual cor- 
ridors are required at regular intervals corresponding 
to the existing street grid, or spaced between 400 
and 600 feet apart. Visual corridors, which are not 
required to be open to the public, may contain certain 
obstructions such as parking and trees. 




SHORE PUBLIC WALKWAY 
■^ ^ 




J^ 

'-^ 



m 

Mm 



Waterfront Access Plans (WAPs) 

Waterfront Access Plans (WAPs) allow for the modi- 
fication of waterfront public access area require- 
ments to address unique conditions in specific 
areas. The area must consist of at least a full block 
or four acres (174,240 sq. ft.) with 600 feet or more 
of shoreline. The area governed by a WAP must be 
entirely within the waterfront area. 




Waterfront public access area at Red Hook retail development 



A WAP adapts waterfront zoning regulations gov- 
erning public access and height and setback require- 
ments to the specific conditions and planning goals 
for a defined area. It can be used, for instance, to 
ensure seamless continuity of shore public walk- 
ways to be developed over time by multiple property 
owners. WAPs have been adopted for the Harlem 
River waterfront in the Bronx, Northern Hunters 
Point, Downtown Flushing and Newtown Creek 
waterfronts in Queens, and for the Greenpoint- 
Williamsburg waterfront in Brooklyn. 



Review Prtwedttres 

For most developments on waterfront blocks, the 
Chairperson of the City Planning Commission 
must certify that the proposed development 
complies with requirements for public access and 
visual corridors. Once certified, a maintenance and 
operation agreement with the Department of Parks 
and Recreation must be filed and recorded before a 
building permit can be issued. The review procedure 
helps the city enforce maintenance obligations and 
the public's right of access to these areas during 
required hours of operation and, for planning pur- 
poses, track the progress of waterfront development 
throughout the city. 



Social seating along tlie waterfront in Red Hool< 




PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACE 



A Privately Owned Public Space (POPS) is an 
amenity provided, constructed and maintained by a 
property owner/developer for public use in exchange 
for additional floor area. POPS are primarily achieved 
as-of-right through tttcetttive zoning, although 
some POPS were created by way of a sf^eciat fcrmit 
granted by the City Planning Commission. 

Privately owned }:'ublic sj^aces have been encour- 
aged in the city's high-density commercial and resi- 
dential districts as a means of increasing light and 
air and green space, and easing the hard streetscape 
formed by towering buildings bordered by concrete 
sidewalks. Since 1961, the Zoning Resolution has 
permitted different types of POPS, including resi- 
dential, urban and sunken plazas, arcades, sidewalk 
widenings, open air concourses, covered pedestrian 
spaces and through block arcades. Over the years, 
the requirements for POPS have been refined, pro- 
viding greater design quality and more comfortable 
elements to meet the needs of the public. 




POPS, which can be located outdoors or indoors, 
now require arrangements of functional and 
visual amenities, such as a variety of seating 
(including benches and chairs), tables, plantings, 
kiosks and art works for the purpose of providing 
the public with a respite from the busy New York 
City streets. Indoor spaces must be easily acces- 
sible from the street and provide a place to sit and 
rest and perhaps get something to eat. 



^A^ 


1 




T 


1 





The most visible type of 
public space is the outdoor 
plaza, which can be identi- 
fied by the familiar entry 
plaque. The conditions 
under which these outdoor 
spaces are permitted have 
continued to change since 1961, beginning ini- 
tially with only modest design requirements and 
progressing to a superior set of design standards 
that ensure that the public benefit of amenities 
is maximized. 

In 2007, all previous design regulations for 
outdoor POPS were updated and consolidated 
into one outdoor plaza designation — the fHihtic 
flaza. The 2007 changes facilitate the design 
and construction of unique outdoor spaces that 
truly engage the public with seating and plantings 
that result in an inviting, attractive and well used 
public space. A follow-up text amendment, in June 
2009, clarified provisions related to compliance, 
approval processes for kiosks and cafes, and design 
changes to existing plazas. 

Design regulations for POPS, including dimensions, 
location, seating, planting, signage, permitted kiosks 
and open air cafes, and maintenance requirements, 
can be found in Section 37-70, inclusive, of the 
Zoning Resolution. 




POPS design requirements are guided by thie follow- 
ing design objectives: 

• Open and inviting at the sidewalk 

A public plaza must be visually interesting and 
easily seen from the street — evidence that it is an 
open, public space. Seating must be easily visible 
with generous paths leading into the plaza. 




Accessible 

A public plaza should generally be located at the 
same level as the adjoining public sidewalk to 
encourage easy access by all passersby. Pedestrian 
circulation is encouraged by a pleasant and 
rational layout of paths and open space. 




Quality seating space 

A public plaza must accommodate a variety of 
well-designed, comfortable seating for small 
groups and individuals, which may include 
fixed and movable chairs, benches and broad 
low walls. 




A sense of safety and security 

A public plaza must be oriented to, and visibly 
connected to the street to avoid any sense of 
isolation. It must be well-lit and contain easily 
accessible paths. 




FRESH Food Stores 



The Food Retail Expansion 
to Support Health Program 
(FRESH) was developed in 
response to a citywide study, 
Going to Market, conducted 
by the Department of City 
Planning in 2008, which high- 
lighted the widespread short- 
age of neighborhood grocery 
stores providing fresh food 
options in several communities 
of New York City. The FRESH 
Program offers zoning incen- 
tives and financial benefits in 
these underserved communi- 
ties. Its goal is to encourage 
the development and retention 
of convenient, accessible stores 
that provide fresh meat, fruit 
and vegetables, and other per- 
ishable goods in addition to a 
full range of grocery products. 
The new program offers a 
set of zoning incentives that 
provide additional floor area in mixed buildings, 
reduce the amount of required parking for food 
stores and permit larger grocery stores as-of-right in 
light manufacturing districts. The financial benefits, 
administered by the NYC Industrial Development 
Agency, exempt or reduce certain taxes for qualify- 
ing FRESH food stores. 

The FRESH Program is applicable in shopping 
districts in selected neighborhoods. These areas 
encompass portions of Manhattan Community 
Districts 9 through 12, portions of Bronx Commun- 
ity Districts 1 through 7, portions of Brooklyn 
Community Districts 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 16 and 17 and the 




Special Downtown Jamaica District in Community 
District 12 in Queens. 

A developer seeking to utilize the zoning incentives 
of the FRESH Program must demonstrate that the 
primary business of the retail space is the sale of 
food products. Prior to obtaining a building permit, 
the proposed store must be certified as a FRESH 
food store by the Chairperson of the City Planning 
Commission (CPC), verifying that the store meets 
the floor area requirements, the space is legally com- 
mitted to use as a FRESH food store, and a grocer 
has agreed to operate a FRESH food store in the 
developed space. 




The floor area requirements for a FRESH food 
store are: at least 6,000 square feet of the store's 
selling area must be used for a general line 
of food and other grocery products, such as 
dairy, canned and frozen foods, fresh fruits 
and vegetables, fresh and prepared meats, fish 
and poultry, and non-food products, all intend- 
ed for home preparation, consumption and use. 

• At least 50 percent of that selling area must be used 
for the sale of a general line of food products. 

• At least 30 percent of such selling area must be 
set aside for the sale of perishable goods, such 
as fresh produce, dairy and frozen foods (which 
may include fresh meats, poultry and fish), of 
which at least 500 square feet must be used for 
the sale of fresh meat, fruits and vegetables. 

A percentage of the ground floor street wall of a 
FRESH food store must be glazed and transparent, 
contributing to a more active streetscape. All new 
security gates on the storefront are required to be 
at least 75 percent transparent. 




In addition, all certified 
FRESH food stores must 
also display the FRESH 
sign at the entrance to 
the store, indicating par- 
ticipation in the FRESH 
program and that fresh 
foods are sold inside. 

A development would be permitted an additional 
square foot of residential floor area in a mixed 
building for every square foot provided for a FRESH 
food store, up to a maximum of 20,000 square feet. 
The CPC may, by authorization, allow an increase 
in the maximum building height, up to 15 feet, to 
accommodate the additional floor area. 

In Ml districts, a FRESH food store with up to 
30,000 square feet of floor area would be permitted 
as-of-right, rather than requiring a special permit. 

Parking requirements in some zoning districts have 
been reduced for FRESH food stores. In Ml and C8 
districts, the first 15,000 square feet of floor area 
in a FRESH food store is exempt from minimum 
parking requirements; in CI through C6 districts, 
FRESH food stores with less than 40,000 square 
feet of floor area do not have to provide parking, 
except that these reductions in parking do not apply 
in portions of Manhattan Community District 12, 
Bronx Community District 7, Brooklyn Community 
Districts 5, 16 and 17 and the Special Downtown 
Jamaica District. 

The program requires a continuing commitment 
to operate a FRESH food store. However, in the 
unlikely event a FRESH food store is not economi- 
cally viable on a particular site, the space may be 
converted to another use by CPC authorization or 
certification by the CPC Chairperson. 



LOWER DENSITY GROWTH MANAGEMENT AREAS 



1 Lower Density Growth Management Area 
I Community District 




In Lower Density Growth Management Areas 

(LDGMA), special zoning controls aim to match 
future development to the capacity of supporting 
services and infrastructure in parts of the city 
experiencing rapid growth. Community Districts 1, 
2 and 3 in Staten Island and Community District 10 
in the Bronx are designated Lower Density Growth 
Management Areas. 

Within an LDGMA, special regulations apply to any 
development in an Rl, R2, R3, R4-1, R4A or C3A 
district, any development accessed by a private road 
in a Rl, R2, R3, R4, R5 or C3A district, and CI, C2 
and C4 districts in the borough of Staten Island. 



SUMMARY OF LDGMA RULES 

• Parking and Related Requirements: Parking 
requirements are increased to accommodate 
high auto ownership in these outlying areas dis- 
tant from mass transit. Residences are required 
to provide parking at a rate of 1.5 spaces per 
dwelling unit. Therefore, a new one-family 
home requires two off-street parking spaces 
and a two-family house requires three spaces. 
Required parking is not permitted in front yards. 
The location of driveways and width of curb 
cuts, including splays, is governed by lot front- 
age; driveways must be spaced far enough apart 
to allow for adequate front yards and sufficient 




curbside parking space for visitors. All driveways 
and parking areas with five or more spaces must 
be screened from adjacent zoning lots. 

Building Bulk and Lot Size: At-grade, in- 
house garages that accommodate increased 
parking required in R3, R4-1 and R4A districts 
are encouraged by permitting higher perimeter 
watts, increasing minimum lot widths, pro- 
hibiting steep driveways and providing a ftoor 
area exemption of up to 300 square feet for one 
parking space and up to 500 square feet for two 
parking spaces located in a garage. 

The attic attowattce for traditional pitched roofs 
requires steeper rooflines in R3, R4-1 and R4A 
districts in an LDGMA which produces more 
usable interior space and replicates the rooflines 
of older neighborhoods. The 35 foot overall height 
limit for lower-density contextual zoning districts 
remains in place; Rl and R2 districts are governed 
by the stey exfosure ftane. 

Yards, Open Space and Landscaping: On the 

large and irregularly shaped lots common to 
areas that lack a regular street grid, LDGMA 
rules ensure that buildings are adequately spaced 
and that full 30 foot rear yards are provided. An 
increase in the amount of open space required 
between homes in an LDGMA Hmits the number 
of homes that can be built behind other homes on 
the same zoning lot. The required planted buffer 



between any group parking lot and an adjacent 
zoning lot must be six foot high and composed 
of dense, evergreen shrubs. 

• Private Road Development: In an LDGMA, 
a private road is a right-of-way, other than a 
street, that provides vehicular access from a 
public street to three or more buildings or build- 
ing segments located wholly beyond 50 feet of 
a public street. All residential developments on 
private roads are governed by the same yard and 
parking rules as those for developments on public 
streets. Parking spaces on a private road do not 
count toward off-street parking requirements. 
Sidewalks are required along all private roads, 
which are required to meet NYC Department 
of Transportation public street standards for 
lighting, signage and crosswalks. 

• Commercial Development: In the Staten Island 
LDGMA, where far less land is zoned for com- 
mercial use than elsewhere in the city, special 
rules prohibit residential-only development in 
the borough's contmerciat overlays and com- 
merciat districts. To encourage the retail stores 
and services needed by a growing population — 
and the traditional mixed use arrangement of 
apartments located above shops at the street 
level — residences are not allowed on the ground 
floor in any CI or C2 commercial overlay district 
or established town centers within C4 districts. 
On large sites in C4-1 districts, which typically 
contain regional shopping malls and commercial 
centers, any residential or mixed use develop- 
ment requires a City Planning Commission 
sf^eciat prermit. Screening is required between 
residential and non-residential uses. 

In 2008, the LDGMA rule that mandated street 
trees for all new developments was extended 
citywide. In 2010, certain LDGMA provisions 
regarding yards, sidewalk planting strips, 
driveways and parking locations were extended 
to Rl through R5 districts citywide because 
they had proved effective in producing greener 
streetscapes that improve the quality of life and 
are environmentally sustainable. 




NYC Indusionary Housing ucaiyndicu Mreds 



1 . Third Avenue/Tremont Avenue 

2. River Avenue 

3. Lower Concourse 

4. 125"' Street 

5. Upper West Side 

6. Clinton Park 

7. 11th Avenue (West 44"' Street) 

8. Hudson Yards 

9. West Chelsea 
1 0. Tribeca 



1 1 . First Avenue (East 35"'- East 41 '-' Streets) 

1 2. Third Avenue/East Village 

1 3. East Village/Lower East Side 

14. Creenpoint-Williamsburg 

15. Kent Avenue (Division Street-Broadway) 

16. DUMBO 

1 7. Broadway Triangle 

18. Bedford-Stuyvesant South 

19. Fort Greene/Clinton Hill 

20. Bond Street (2"'i Street-Carroll Street) 



21. South Park Slope 

22. Sunset Park 

23. Flatbush 

24. Coney Island 

25. Southern Hunters Point 

26. Astoria 

27. Dutch Kills 

28. Maspeth/Woodside 

29. Jamaica 



MAPS FOR INCLUSIONARY HOUSING DESIGNATED AREAS ARE LISTED BY BOROUGH & COMMUNITY DISTRICT IN APPENDIX F OF THE ZONING RESOLUTION 



INCLUSIONARY HOUSING PROGRAM 



The hidusionary Housing Program (IHP) promotes 
economic integration in areas of the City undergoing 
substantial new residential development by offering 
an optional floor area bonus in exchange for the cre- 
ation or preservation of affordable housing, on-site or 
off-site, principally for low-income households. 

The Inclusionary Housing Program requires a per- 
centage of the dwelling units within a building to be 
set aside, or new or rehabilitated affordable units be 
provided off-site within the same community district 
or within one-half mile of the bonused development. 
All affordable residential units created through the 
Inclusionary Housing Program must remain per- 
manently affordable. Affordable apartments may 
be rental units or, under modifications made to the 
program in 2009, available in an ownership plan. 

In the Special Hudson Yards District, the Special 
West Chelsea District and in designated areas 
mapped on First Avenue between East 35'*' and East 
41"' Streets in Manhattan, and along the Greenpoint- 
Williamsburg waterfront in Brooklyn, a percentage 
of units may be set aside for moderate- or middle- 
income households if a greater percentage of afford- 
able units is provided. All bonus floor area must 
be accommodated within the height and setback 
provisions of the underlying zoning district. 




IHP building in Williamsburg 



There are now two programs eligible to achieve the IHP 
bonus: the Inclusionary Housing RIO Program andthe 
Inclusionary Housing designated areas Program. 



The original Inclusionary Housing Program was cre- 
ated in 1987 for high density RIO districts and com- 
mercial districts with RIO density where it remains 
applicable today. New developments that provide 
affordable housing in eligible RIO districts receive a 
floor area bonus of up to 20 percent of the maximum 
permitted residential floor area, increasing the maxi- 
mum floor area ratio (FAR) of 10.0 to 12.0. 

For each square foot of floor area dedicated to 
affordable housing, the development can receive 
between 1.25 and 3.5 square feet of bonus floor area, 
depending on whether the affordable housing is pro- 
vided on-site or off-site, through new construction, 
rehabilitation or preservation of existing affordable 
housing, and whether public funding is used for 
financing. Because this program is available only in 
zoning districts with RIO density, eligible develop- 
ments have been concentrated in Manhattan. 

Designated Areas Program 

Building on the success of the RIO Program, the 
Inclusionary Housing designated areas Program 
was created in 2005 to encourage the creation and 
preservation of affordable housing throughout the 
City in designated areas mapped in medium- and 
high-density neighborhoods being rezoned to create 
new housing opportunities. 

The base FAR for developments in Inclusionary 
Housing designated areas is, in most cases, lower 
than the base FAR allowed in the same zoning dis- 
trict located outside a designated area. 

In general, within Inclusionary Housing designated 
areas, new developments, or enlargements consti- 
tuting more than 50 percent of existing floor area, 



that allocate at least 20 percent of their residential 
floor area for affordable housing can receive a floor 
area bonus of 33 percent above the base floor area 
permitted. This floor area bonus, combined with 
a variety of housing subsidy programs provides an 
incentive for the development and preservation of 
affordable housing. 

Inclusionary Housing designated areas are mapped 
in specified areas of the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan 
and Queens and are listed by borough and commu- 
nity district in Appendix F of the Zoning Resolution. 
Designated areas are also mapped within the 
following special purpose districts: the Special 
125"^ Street District, the Special Clinton District, 
the Special Coney Island District, the Special 
Downtown Jamaica District, the Special Garment 
Center District, the Special Harlem River Waterfront 
District, the Special Hudson Yards District, the 
Special Long Island City Mixed Use District, the 
Special Southern Hunters Point District, the Special 
Tribeca Mixed Use District and the Special West 
Chelsea District. Assigned FARs in designated areas 
within special districts may differ. 



Zoning 
District 


Base FAR in 
zoning districts 
that are not 
designated areas 


IH designated areas 


Base 
FAR 


Maximum FAR 
with bonus 


R6' 


2.20 


2.20 


2.42 


R6^ 


3.00 


2.70 


3.60 


R6''-' 


2.43 


2.70 


3.60 


R6A 


3.00 


2.70 


3.60 


R6B 


2.00 


2.00 


2.20 


R7-2" 


3.44 


2.70 


3.60 


R7-2^ 


4.00 


3.45 


4.60 


R7A 


4.00 


3.45 


4.60 


R7D 


4.20 


4.20 


5.60 


R7X 


5.00 


3.75 


5.00 


R8" 


6.02 


5.40 


7.20 


R8^ 


7.20 


5.40 


7.20 


R8A 


6.02 


6.02 


7.20 


R9 


7.52 


6.00 


8.00 


R9A 


7.52 


6.50 


8.50 


R9D 


9.00 


7.50 


10.00 


RIO 


10.00 


9.00 


12.00 



' for zoning lots, or portions thereof, beyond 1 00 feet of a wide street 
'- for zoning lots, or portions thereof, within 1 00 feet of a wide street 
' for all zoning lots within the Manhattan Core 



Example of Inclusionary Housing desi 




gnated area Bonus in an R8A District 

A portion of an R8A district mapped along 
4"' Avenue in South Park Slope in Brooklyn 
Community District 7 has been mapped as an 
Inclusionary Housing designated area. 

• The base FAR in most R8A districts is 6.02 

• The base FAR in an R8A district within an 
Inclusionary Housing designated area is 5.40 

• The maximum FAR for a development that 
provides affordable housing in an Inclusionary 
Housing designated area, including the bonus, 
is 7.20 

Using the Inclusionary Housing designated areas 
Program, the floor area may be increased by 1.25 
square feet for each square foot of affordable 
housing provided, up to the maximum FAR — a 
bonus of 33 percent for providing 20 percent of 
affordable housing. 



Appendix A 



Zoning Analyses 



Each zoning analysis that follows illustrates the 
way in which the use, hulk and parking regulations 
of a zoning district would guide development of a 
typical building in that district. The hypothetical 
examples include: a semi-detached residence in an 
R4-1 district (see page 20 for R4-1 regulations); a 
height factor building in an R6 district (page 28); 
a Quality Honsiug apartment building in an R6A 
district (page 30); an optional Quality Housing 
mixed residential/community facility building in 
an R7-1 district (page 33); an office tower in a C5-5 
district (page 62); and a one-story industrial building 
in an Ml-1 district (page 70). 

ZONING ANALYSIS 1 

A Typical Building in an R4-1 District 

A builder plans to construct two semi-detached 
houses on two adjacent 25 by 100 foot interior 
zoning lots in an R4-1 district. Both semi-detached 
houses would share a common zoning lot line and be 
mirror images of each other. (This analysis and all 
calculations that follow refer to a single building.) 

The base floor area ratio (FAR) in an R4-1 district 
is 0.75. However, the maximum FAR would be 0.90 
because the builder plans to make use of the attic 
allowance of up to 20 percent of the 0.75 base FAR. 
Therefore, the floor area of the house would be 2,250 
square feet (0.90 x 2,500 sq ft). 

There is no maximum lot coverage in an R4-1 dis- 
trict; the maximum building dimensions are deter- 
mined by yard requirements. The rear yard must be 
at least 30 feet deep to provide adequate light, air and 
recreational space. The minimum depth of a front 
yard is 10 feet. If the front yards on the adjacent 
zoning lots are deeper than 10 feet, the front yard of 
the new building must be at least as deep as an adja- 



cent front yard in order to preserve the traditional 
building line along the street. (The front yard need 
not exceed a depth of 20 feet.) Since one adjacent 
yard is 12 feet in depth and the other 15 feet deep, 
the builder will provide a front yard that is 12 feet 
deep; 25 percent of the front yard must be planted. 
The required side yard for a semi-detached building 
in an R4-1 district is four feet; eight feet is required 
between buildings on adjacent zoning lots. Because 
the house on the adjacent zoning lot is a zero lot line 
huilding that abuts the side lot line, the side yard of 
the new building must be a minimum of eight feet 
wide. Deducting these yard dimensions on a 25 by 
100 foot lot, the building footprint would be 986 
square feet (17ft x 58 ft). 

Density, or the maximum number of dwelling 
units permitted on a zoning lot in an R4-1 zone^ is 
determined by a formula in which the maximum 
permitted floor area on the zoning lot is divided 
by a factor of 870. In this example, the maximum 
permitted floor area (2,250 sq ft) is divided by 870 
to yield 2.6 dwelling units (fractions equal to or 
greater than 0.75 can be rounded up). Therefore, 
no more than two dwelling units are permitted on 
this zoning lot. (Although only one- or two-family 
homes are permitted in R4-1 districts, a large zoning 
lot could theoretically accommodate more than one 
two-family house.) A two-family, semi-detached 
house has minimum floor area requirements for each 
dwelling unit: one must have a minimum of 925 
square feet; the other must be at least 300 square 
feet. At least 75 percent of the floor area of one 
dwelling unit must be directly above or below the 
other dwelling unit to prevent adjoining two-family 
semi-detached houses from having the appearance 
of four row houses. 

To be compatible with adjacent houses, the perim- 
eter wall of a house in an R4-1 district may be no 



higher than 25 feet. Above that, the building may 
reach a maximum height of 35 feet at the ridgeUne 
of a peaked roof. When the block is characterized 
by buildings with second story setbacks, the second 
story of the new dwelling must also be set back. 
Since the second story setback of the adjacent build- 
ings is 10 feet, the floor area of the second floor 
dwelling unit would be 816 square feet (17ft X 48 ft). 
The size of this dwelling unit may be increased by 
adding floor area on the third floor, creating a duplex 
unit. The amount of floor area on the third floor is 
determined by the dimensions of the building enve- 
lope but could be no more than 448 square feet. 

R4-1 districts require one parking space for each 
dwelling unit. Parking must be located within the 
side lot ribbon. If the builder provides a garage in 
the rear yard at the end of the ribbon, the floor area 
of the house could be increased by 300 square feet, 
provided such additional floor area fits within the 
building envelope. This floor area bonus provides an 
incentive for garages with long driveways that can 
accommodate several off-street parking spaces while 
preserving the front of the house for landscaped 
front yards. One street tree must be planted for 
every 25 feet of lot frontage (25 feet -^ 25 = 1 tree). 

The resulting building, a two and one-half story semi- 
detached house with a pitched roof on a 2,500 square 
foot lot, would cover almost 40 percent of the zoning 
lot and contain 2,250 square feet of floor area. 





Lot area 


2,500 square feet 


Floor area ratio 


0.75 


Attic allowance 


0.15 


Total permitted FAR 


0.90 


Resulting floor area 


2,250 square feet 


Required rear yard (minimum) 


30 feet 


Required front yard (minimum) 


10 feet 

(12 feet provided) 


Required side yard (minimum) 


4 feet or 8 feet 
(8 feet provided) 


Permitted number of dwelling units 


2 


Required number of parking spaces 


2 


Trees 


1 (2 provided) 


Use 


Use Croup 2 



ZONING ANALYSIS 2 

A Typical Height Factor Building in 

an R6 District 

A developer who owns a 200 by 100 foot lot in an 
R6 district plans to construct a seven-story building. 
Under R6 height factor regulations, the maximum 
permitted floor area and open space ratios vary 
depending on the proposed height of the building. 
The maximum floor area ratio (FAR) for a building 
with a height factor of 7.0 in an R6 district is 2.23. 
Therefore, the building could have a maximum floor 
area of 44,600 square feet (2.23 X 20,000 sq ft). 

The floor area of a building is the sum of the gross 
area of all floors, excluding cellars (where more than 
half of the story is below curb level), and space used 
for mechanical equipment. Space used for an acces- 
sory garage within the structure, which is no higher 
than 23 feet above curb level, is also excluded from 
floor area calculations. 

The amount of required o/^en sfmce on the zoning 
tot is determined by the open sjmce ratio (OSR), 

the percentage of the building's floor area that must 
be provided as open space. With certain exceptions, 
the open space must be unobstructed to the sky and 
accessible to all residents of a building, and up to 
50 percent of the required open space may be used 
for off-street parking. With an open space ratio of 
30.5 for a seven-story building in an R6 district, 
the required open space for this building would 
be approximately 13,603 square feet, or 30.5 per- 
cent of 44,600 square feet, the allowed floor area. 
Approximately 68 percent of the lot would be open 
space (13,603 sq ft ^ 20,000 sq ft). 

In this example, the building must provide a 30 
foot rear yard to ensure that adequate light and 
air reach the rear of the building and the adjoining 
property. No side yards or front yards are required 
in this district. However, the open space regulations 
are flexible and generous yards could be provided 



in front of or along the sides of the building, or the 
structure could be built at the street tine with most 
of the open space at the rear. 

The building would cover about 32 percent of the 
lot, or 6,400 square feet, and have seven floors. In 
this example, the building would be 60 feet deep 
and 107 feet wide and approximately 70 feet high. 
(The more generous numbers reflect mechani- 
cal space.) Although front and side yards are not 
required, two side yards, each 46 feet wide, and a 
10 foot front yard would be provided (in addition 
to the required rear yard) to comply with the open 
space requirements. 

The height of the building is controlled by sky 
exposure planes. The developer can choose from 
two sets of sky exposure planes, both beginning at a 
height of 60 feet above the street line. The standard 
sky exposure plane limits the height of a building 
within 15 feet of the street line to six stories or 60 
feet, whichever is less, so the developer will choose 
the alternate sky exposure plane. The alternate sky 
exposure plane allows the seven-story building in 
the desired location, provided an open area at least 
10 feet deep extends along the entire frontage of 
the zoning lot. 

Density in an R6 zone is determined by a formula 
in which the maximum permitted floor area on 
the zoning lot is divided by a factor of 680. In 
this example, the maximum permitted floor area 
(44,600 sq ft) is divided by 680 to yield 65.5 dwell- 
ing units (fractions equal to or greater than 0.75 
can be rounded up). Therefore, no more than 65 
dwelling units are permitted on this zoning lot. 



If 65 apartments are provided, the average unit 
size would be somewhat less than 686 square feet 
(44,600 sq ft -h 65, less the square footage of lobbies 
and common corridors). The developer, however, 
wishes to provide only 50 apartments in order to 
increase the average unit size. 

The parking requirement for this building is 70 
percent of the number of dwelling units. Of the 35 
parking spaces required, about 18 spaces could be 
provided in an open parking lot within the 50 percent 
of open space on the zoning lot that may be devoted 
to parking. The remaining 17 parking spaces would 
have to be provided in a garage in the cellar of the 
building. One street tree must be planted for every 
25 feet of lot frontage (200 feet ^25 = 8 trees). 

The resulting building, a seven-story structure on 
a 20,000 square foot lot, would cover nearly 32 
percent of the lot and would contain 44,600 square 
feet of floor area. It would have 50 apartments with 
35 parking spaces. 





Lot area 


20,000 square feet 


Floor area ratio 


2.23 


Resulting floor area 


44,600 square feet 


Required open space ratio 


30.5 


Required open space 


1 3,603 square feet 


Required rear yard (minimum) 


30 feet 


Required front yard (minimum) 


None (1 feet provided) 


Required side yards (minimum) 


None (two 46-foot side 
yards provided) 


Permitted number of dwelling units 


65 (50 provided) 


Required number of parking spaces 


35 


Trees 


8 


Use 


Use Group 2 



ZONING ANALYSIS 3 

A Typical Quality Housing Building in 
an R6A District 

A developer plans to construct a seven-story residen- 
tial building on a 200 by 100 foot interior lot on a wide 
street in an R6A district outside of the MauUattatt 
Core. The maximum floor area ratio (FAR) is 3.0. 
Therefore, the building could have a maximum 
floor area of 60,000 square feet (3.0 x 20,000 sq ft). 
Lot coverage for an interior lot is 65 percent. 

In an R6A district, the required base height ranges 
from a minimum of 40 feet to a maximum of 60 
feet, and the maximum building height is 70 feet. 
Any portion of a building facing a wide street that 
exceeds 60 feet in height must be set back from 
the street wall of the building at least 10 feet. In 
this example, the seventh floor would need to be 
set back. The lowest level at which the setback can 
occur is the minimum base height of 40 feet. Unlike 
height factor zoning where the building can be 
set back at ground level and rise straight up seven 
floors, a building developed under Quality Housing 
(required in R6A districts) must set back within 
the required base height range. This requirement 
ensures that the uniform street walls characteristic 
of R6A districts are maintained. 

The street wall of the building cannot be closer to the 
street line than the street wall of any building on the 
same block within 150 feet of the development. On 
this block, there are three buildings within 150 feet 
of the development and all are set back between 10 
and 15 feet from the street hne. Since the shallowest 
of these setback areas is 10 feet, the new development 
must also set back at least 10 feet. The setback area 
in front of the building must be planted. 

Density in an R6A district is determined by a for- 
mula in which the maximum permitted floor area 
on the zoning lot is divided by a factor of 680. In 
this example, the maximum permitted floor area 
(60,000 sq ft) is divided by 680 to yield 88.2 dwelling 
units (fractions equal to or greater than 0.75 can be 



rounded up). Therefore, no more than 88 dwelling 
units are permitted on this zoning lot. The average 
unit size would be somewhat less than 681 square 
feet (60,000 sq ft -^ 88, less the square footage of 
lobbies and common corridors). The developer, 
however, chooses to provide only 70 apartments in 
order to increase the average unit size. 

The Quality Housing Program mandates certain 
amenities for the building's residents. Since the 
building has more than nine dwelling units, recre- 
ation space must be provided in an amount equal 
to at least 3.3 percent of the residential floor area, 
or 1,980 square feet. The recreation space can be 
provided indoors or outdoors. If it is indoors, it does 
not count as floor area. Recycling and trash disposal 
rooms must be provided on each floor, and the mini- 
mum space required does not count as floor area. 
If laundry facilities are provided, that space does 
not count as floor area either. All windows must 
be double-glazed, and street trees must be planted 
along the width of the zoning lot. 

Parking is required for 50 percent of the dwelling 
units. Since there are 70 apartments, 35 spaces are 
required. Unlike height factor zoning, none of these 
spaces may be located between the street wall and 
the street line. Parking must be located behind or to 
the side of the building or in an underground garage. 
One street tree must be planted for every 25 feet 
of lot frontage (200 feet ^25 = 8 trees). 



mfilitlfM^: 


Lot area 


20,000 square feet 


Floor area ratio 


3.0 


Resulting floor area 


60,000 square feet 


Permitted lot coverage (maximum) 


65 percent 


Required rear yard (minimum) 


30 feet 


Required front yard (minimum) 


None (10 feet provided) 


Required side yards (minimum) 


None 


Permitted number of dwelling units 


88 (70 provided) 


Required number of parking spaces 


35 


Trees 


8 


Use 


Use Group 2 



ZONING ANALYSIS 4 

A Typical Optional Quality Housing 

Building in an R7 District 

A developer plans to construct an eight-story 
residential building with community facilities on a 
200 by 100 foot interior lot on a wide street in an 
R7-1 district outside of the Matihattnti Core. Under 
height factor regulations, the maximum floor area 
ratio (FAR) is 3.44. Under the optional Quality 
Housing regulations, the maximum FAR is 4.0. In 
this example, the developer chooses the Quality 
Housing option to maximize the residential floor 
area in the building. The building, therefore, could 
have a maximum residential floor area of 80,000 
square feet (4.0 x 20,000 sq ft). 

The developer wishes to include medical offices 
on the ground floor. Medical offices are considered 
a community facility use (Use Group 4) and, in 
R7-1 districts, are allowed an FAR of 4.8. When 
residential and community facility uses are in the 
same building, however, the community facility use 
cannot exceed an FAR of 1.0. When a mixture of 
uses occurs on a zoning lot, the maximum FAR on 
the lot is determined by the highest FAR allowed 
for any of the uses, provided that the FAR for any 
use does not exceed the maximum FAR permitted 
for that use. Therefore, 4.8 becomes the maximum 
FAR for the building, provided that the residential 
FAR does not exceed 4.0 and the community facility 
FAR does not exceed 1.0. The maximum floor area 
for the building would now be 96,000 square feet 
(4.8 X 20,000 sq ft). 

The Quality Housing Program requires that the 
building comply with a set of height and setback 
regulations that, on a wide street in an R7-1 district, 
limit the maximum base height to 65 feet and the 
maximum building height to 80 feet. Any portion of 
a building that exceeds 65 feet in height must be set 



back from the front and rear walls of the building. 
The lowest level at which the setback can occur is 
the minimum base height, which is 40 feet in an R7-1 
district. Unlike height factor zoning, the building 
cannot rise straight up without setbacks on its upper 
floors. In this example, each story of the building 
would be 10 feet high, the building base (first through 
sixth floors) would rise straight up to 60 feet, and 
the seventh and eighth floors would be set back 10 
feet from the front and rear of the building. 

The street wall of the building cannot be closer to 
the street line than the street wall of any building on 
the same block within 150 feet of the development. 
Qn this block, there are two neighboring buildings 
within 150 feet of the development, and both are 
set back 10 feet from the street line. Therefore, the 
new development will also provide a 10 foot front 
setback area, which must be planted. 

Since this building lot is 100 feet deep and a 30 foot 
rear yard and a 10 foot front setback are required, the 
maximum depth of the building would be 60 feet. 
No side yards are required, so the building will be 
200 feet wide. The community facility use on the 
first floor may extend into the required rear yard 
to a height of one story or 23 feet, whichever is less. 
(This rear yard extension for community facilities 
is not permitted beyond 100 feet of a wide street.) 
The first floor, therefore, can contain 18,000 square 
feet of floor area. The next five residential floors can 
contain 12,000 square feet each (200 feet wide by 
60 feet deep), for a total of 60,000 square feet. The 
building now totals 78,000 square feet but is allowed 
a maximum of 96,000 square feet. The remaining 
18,000 square feet would be divided between two 
residential penthouse levels, each 180 feet wide by 
40 feet deep. 

Density in an R7-1 zone is determined by a formula 
in which the maximum permitted residential floor 



area on the zoning lot is divided by a factor of 680. 
In this example,, the maximum permitted floor 
area (80,000 sq ft) is divided by 680 to yield 117.6 
dwelting units (fractions equal to or greater than 
0.75 can be rounded up). Therefore, no more than 
117 dwelling units are permitted on this zoning lot 
and the average unit size would be somewhat less 
than 683 square feet (80,000 sq ft -h 117, less the 
square footage of lobbies and common corridors). To 
increase the average unit size, however, the devel- 
oper chooses to provide only 90 apartments. 

The Quality Housing Program mandates certain 
amenities for the building's residents. Since the 
building has more than nine dwelling units, recre- 
ation space must be provided in an amount equal 
to at least 3.3 percent of the residential floor area, 
or 2,574 square feet, either indoors or outdoors. If 
indoors, it does not count as floor area. Recycling 
and trash disposal rooms must be provided on each 
floor; this space would not count as floor area. If a 
laundry area is provided, it also does not count as 
floor area. All windows must be double-glazed. One 
street tree must be planted for every 25 feet of lot 
frontage (200 feet -h 25 = 8 trees). 

Off-street parking is required for 50 percent of 
the dwelling units, and one space is required for 
each 800 square feet of floor area occupied by the 
medical offices. The 90 apartments require 45 
spaces and the 18,000 square foot medical facility 
requires 23 spaces, a total of 68 off street spaces. 
Unlike height factor zoning, none of these spaces 
may be located between the street wall and the 
street line. Since the building occupies the entire 
width of the zoning lot and the community facility 
occupies the rear yard, parking must be provided 
in an underground garage. 



i 


..i<;.!R8i.i<!.,.'.i»".>f;i!i4'a.:.i:nn;-«i'.i«.vi.ss.:>H;,<iyi.1 


K::«...*. ...^....^yRJ^ftJt? O'strict 


Lot area 


20,000 square feet 


Residential FAR 


4.0 


Community facility FAR 


4.8 (1 .0 if building contains 
residential use) 


Total building FAR (maximum) 


4.8 


Resulting floor area 


96,000 square feet 


Permitted lot coverage (maximum) 


65 percent 


Required rear yard (minimum) 


30 feet 


Required front yard (minimum) 


None (10 feet provided) 


Required side yards (minimum) 


None 


Permitted number of dwelling units 


1 1 7 (90 provided) 


Required number of parking spaces 


68 


Trees 


8 


Use 


Use Groups 2 and 4 



ZONING ANALYSIS 5 

A Typical Office Building in 

a C5-5 District 

C5-5 districts permit a basic commercial floor 
area ratio (FAR) of 15.0 which can be increased 
to 18.0 if amenities such as fmblic plazas are pro- 
vided. Portions of the Financial District in Lower 
Manhattan are C5-5 districts. 

The typical building on a corner tot of 20,000 square 
feet (100 ft X 200 ft) would be a commercial office 
building ranging from 25 stories to 40 stories. 

An office building in this district usually has stores, 
restaurants, banks or other commercial services 
on the first floor and offices on the upper floors. 
Because these C5-5 districts are located only in cen- 
tral business district areas, no parking is required. 

The size and height of an office building in a C5-5 
district depends on the maximum floor area ratio 
and height and setback regulations. 



The floor area may be distributed anywhere on 
the lot, subject to the limitations of the yard and 
height and setback regulations. Rear yards are not 
required on corner lots. Therefore, the building in 
this example could cover 100 percent of the lot. 

Height and setback regulations limit the height of 
the front wall of a building. In this example, any 
portion of the building rising above 85 feet would 
be required to set back 15 feet. 

The designer of an office building has some flexibil- 
ity in meeting zoning requirements. The architect 
may include a fftiblic f^laza to obtain a tower with 
up to 20 percent more floor area (18.0 FAR) than the 
base FAR of 15.0 in a C5-5 district. The zoning lot is 
within the Special Lower Manhattan District where 
towers may cover up to 65 percent of the lot, up to a 
height of 300 feet. Above that height, tower cover- 
age is limited to 50 percent of the lot. Depending 
on the lot coverage of the tower, the building could 
rise to 50 stories or more. Alternatively, a lower 
building without a public plaza may be developed in 
accordance with the height and setback regulations, 
resulting in a high coverage 25-story building. 

One street tree must be planted for every 25 feet of 
lot frontage (200 feet ^ 25 = 8 trees). 



Typical Office Building in a C5-5 District 


Lot area 


20,000 square feet 


Floor area ratio 


15.0 


FAR with bonuses (maximum) 


18.0 


Resulting floor area 


360,000 square feet 


Required number of parking spaces 


None required 


Trees 


8 


Use 


Use Groups 5, 6, 9, lOSt 11 



ZONING ANALYSIS 6 

A Typical Industrial Building in 

an M1-1 District 

A typical building in an Ml-1 district on a 20,000 
square foot lot (100 feet by 200 feet) would be a 
one-story light industrial building. It would usually 
cover approximately 75 percent of the lot (about 
15,000 square feet) and have open parking at the 
rear of the lot. Typical uses include such high per- 
formance industries as warehousing, distribution, 
or the manufacture of apparel, textiles or electronic 
equipment. Ml-1 districts are usually near residential 
neighborhoods and frequently act as low-bulk buf- 
fers at the periphery of older industrial areas with 
heavier industrial uses and larger buildings. 

The maximum floor area ratio in this district for 
manufacturing or commercial uses is 1.0. However, 
since many industrial users prefer single-story, 
spread-out plants to permit horizontal operations, 
the maximum permitted floor area may not be 
achieved because of parking and loading berth 
requirements. For example, one parking space is 
required for every 1,000 square feet of floor area. 
In order to provide the 15 required parking spaces 
in an open area on the lot, the building could cover 
only about 75 percent of the lot, or 15,000 square 
feet. This would afford an actual floor area ratio of 
0.75. In this case, the developer chooses to build a 
two-story building with two 10,000 square foot 
floorplates, utilizing the 1.0 FAR. The building 
would also have to provide one loading berth at least 
33 feet long, 12 feet wide and 14 feet high. 

Industrial developments are not required to provide 
street trees. 



Typical Industrial Building in an Ml-1 District 


Lot area 


20,000 square feet 


Floor area ratio 


1.0 


Resulting floor area 


20,000 square feet 


Floor area provided 


15,000 square feet 


Required rear yard (minimum) 


20 feet 


Required side yards (minimum) 


None 


Required number of parking spaces 


15 


Required loading berths 


1 


Use 


Use Group 17 



Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) 



CITY MAP 






BOROUGH 






CHANGES 


DEPARTMENT OF CITY PLANNING 


COMMUNITY 


PRESIDENT and 


CITY PLANNING 




MAPS OF 

SUBDIVISIONS 

FLATTINGS 


Application and Pre-Certification 


BOARD 


BOROUGH BOARD 


COMMISSION 














ZONING MAP 


• Receives application and 


• Notifies public. 


• BP submits 


• Holds public hearing. 




CHANCES 


related documents. 




recommendation 










• Holds public 


to CPC or waives 


• Approves, modifies 




CPC SPECIAL 










PERMITS 


• Forwards application and documents 


hearing. 


right to do so. 






REVOCABLE 


v/ithin 5 days to CB, BP, and CC 






application. 




CONSENTS 


(and BB, if project affects more than 


• Submits 


• BB (if project 






FRANCHISE RFP'S 


one CB). 


recommendation 


affects more than 


• Files approvals and 




MAIOR 




to CPC, BP (and BB). 


one CB) may hold 


approvals with 




CONCESSIONS 


• Certifies application as complete. 




a public hearing 


modifications with 




NON-CITY PUBLIC 




• Can waive rights 


and submit 


City Council. 




IMPROVEMENTS 






recommendation 










on franchise 






HOUSING AND 




RFP's and leases. 


to CPC or waive 


• Disapprovals are 




URBAN RENEWAL 






riglit to do so. 


final, except for 




PLANS 


















zoning map changes, 




LANDFILLS 








special permits, and 




DISPOSITION OF 
REAL PROPERTY 








urban renewal plans. 


SEE FLOW CHART 


ACQUISITION OF 
REAL PROPERTY 






J 


below for the 
"process for 








" 


SITE SELECTION 










CITY COUNCIL 
AND MAYORAL 




No Specified Time Limit (after 6 months. 








PROCESS 


applicant or BP in some cases, may 


60 Days 


30 Days 


60 Days 


review (Charter 


TAKES 


appeal to CPC for certification). 








Section 197-d) 


Clock = 1 Year 







r- 


C. 


TOTAL DAYS 




60 Days 


90 Days 


150 Days 

i i 



AFTER CPC APPROVES APPLICATION 



AUTOMATIC REVIEW BY CITY COUNCIL 
Zoning map changes 
Zoning text changes (non-ULURP) 
Housing and urban renewal plans 
Disposition of residential buildings (except to 

non-profit companies for low-income housing) 
197-a plans 



• "TRIPLE NO"— AUTOMATIC REVIEW BY COUNCIL 
OF ITEMS IN ELECTIVE LIST (BELOW), IF: 
CB recommended disapproval (NO #1) 
BP recommended disapproval (NO #2) 
BP files objection with Council and CPC 
within 5 days of CPC approval (NO #3) 



CITY COUNCIL MAY ELECT TO REVIEW: 

City map changes 

Maps of subdivisions or plattings 

CPC special permits 

Revocable consents, franchise RFP's, and major 

concessions 
Non-City public improvements 
Landfills 

Disposition of commercial or vacant property 
Disposition of residential buildings to nonprofit 

companies for low income housing 
Act]uisition of real property 
Site selection 



CITY COUNCIL 



Can review application, 
hold a public hearing, and 
vote to approve, approve with 
modifications, or disapprove. 

Refers any proposed 
modifications to CPC for an 
additional 15-day review. 

If Council does not act 
(or does not assume jurisdic- 
tion on items it must elect to 
review), CPC decision is final. 



Action requires 
majority vote. 



Must assume 

jurisdiction 

within 20 clays. 

Action requires 
majority vote. 



50 Days* 



IF CPC DISAPPROVES APPLICATION, 
ALL ITEMS ARE DEFEATED EXCEPT 








Action requires 2,' 3 vote. 
Action is final. 


SPECIAL PERMITS, if Mayor certifies as necessary 

zoning MAP AND TEXT CHANCES, if Mayor 
certifies as necessary 

197-a PLANS, if Mayor requests approval 




■*■ 50 Days** 








Action requires 3/4 vote. 
Action IS final. 
^ Law and timetable 


URBAN RENEWAL PLANS, Per State Law. 




to be revised 



MAYOR 



Reviews oppiicatton. 

May veto Council action. 

If Council does not act 
(or does not assume 
jurisdiction on Items it must 
elect to review), may veto 
CPC decision. 



5 Days 



CITY COUNCIL 



May override 
Mayor's veto by 
2/3 vote. 



10 Days 



* Does not include IS day review 
for proposed modifications. 

** Time for review of disapproval of 
197-a Plans will be established 
by rule of CPC. 

ABBREVIATIONS: 

DCP = Department of City Planning 

CPC = City Planning Commission 

CB = Community Board 

BP = Borough President 

CC - City Council 

BB = Borough Board 



Appendix B 

How Zoning is Amended and Enforced 



Most development inNew York City occurs 
ns-of-riglit. Once the Department 
of Buildings (DOB) is satisfied that 
the proposed structure complies with all relevant 
provisions of the Zoning Resolution and the Building 
Code, a building permit is issued and construction 
can begin. No further action is required.' 

The Zoning Resolution is comprehensive, but it 
must be flexible in order to accommodate and guide 
development. There are a number of discretionary 
actions that amend or modify the Zoning Resolution 
to allow a project to move forward or to implement 
broad changes in public land use policy. A zoning 
text amendment (changing the zoning regulations) 
or zoning majf amendment (changing the zoning 
designation) may be needed to allow a develop- 
ment at a location or in a configuration that is not 
currently permitted but advances sound policy 
considerations. A City Planning Commission (CPC) 
special permit ox Board of Standards and Ay/^eals 
(BSA) special permit ensures site-specific review of 
projects with potential land use impacts or policy 
implications. An antUorization to modify zoning 
for a specific project may be granted by the CPC, 
provided certain conditions have been satisfied. A 
property owner may request a variance from the 
BSA when compliance with zoning might present 
an economic hardship or practical difficulties. 

Zoning map amendments, commonly known as 
rezonings or remappings, and CPC special permits 
are subject to public review, pursuant to ULURP 
(Uniform Land Use Review Procednre), as set forth 
in the City Charter. ULURP sets time frames for 
public participation in local and citywide review 
of land use actions. Zoning text amendments are 
subject to a similar review, also set forth in the 
City Charter, but there is no time limit for CPC 
review. All discretionary actions must be assessed 



Some as-of-right developments require certification by 

the CPC or CPC Chairperson to DOB that certain technical 
zoning regulations have been met. Certifications are not 
discretionary actions. 



for environmental impacts in accordance with the 
State Environmental Quality Act (SEORA) and City 
Environmental Quality Review (CEQR). 

ZOUmG AMEMDIVlEi'^TS 

The Zoning Resolution is amended frequently, both 
to keep zoning up-to-date in a rapidly changing 
city and to fulfill the City Planning Commission's 
charter-mandated responsibility "for the conduct of 
planning relating to the orderly growth, improve- 
ment and future development of the city." 

An amendment to the zoning text or zoning map is 
a legislative action that is either citywide or affects 
particular areas or zoning districts. It may imple- 
ment a citywide policy initiative, such as FRESH 
food stores, or address changing land use conditions. 
It involves introducing new text, amending exist- 
ing text or changing the zoning designation on the 
zoning map(s), or any combination of such actions. 
It is generally unconditional and affects all property 
equally within the area subject to the change. 

Amendments to the zoning text or rezonings are 
typically proposed by the Department of City 
Planning. They also can be initiated by a taxpayer, 
Community or Borough Board, Borough President, 
the CPC, the City Council or the Mayor. A private 
applicant may initiate a zoning amendment to 
facilitate a development proposal. 

Zoning map amendments may be adopted only 
after public review pursuant to ULURP (see chart 
on page 126). Zoning text amendments, which are 
not subject to ULURP, follow a similar review pro- 
cedure where they must be approved by the CPC and 
adopted by the City Council. 

ZONING MODIFICATIONS AND WAIVERS 
CPC Special Permits: The Zoning Resolution 
defines circumstances in which a developer may apply 
for a special permit based on the use, location, size or 
design of a project. The CPC, after a coinprehensive 



review process, may grant special permits modifying 
use, bulk or parking controls for a specific project, 
ensuring that the project meets objective conditions 
and other findings about the potential impact of the 
project. Because they generally involve significant 
planning issues, CPC special permits are subject to 
public hearing and review, pursuant to ULURP, and 
may also be reviewed by the City Council. Examples 
of special permits include applications for large- 
scale general develofuients and floor area bonuses 
for certain public amenities, such as transportation 
improvements. Applications must contain site plans 
and the CPC may stipulate additional conditions and 
safeguards prior to granting the permit. 

CPC Authorizations: The Zoning Resolution 
states that the CPC, upon request from an applicant, 
may, at its discretion and by resolution at a public 
meeting, modify certain zoning requirements for 
a particular project provided that specific require- 
ments have been satisfied. For example, lot coverage 
controls in the Special Hillsides District may be 
modified if the CPC finds that development would 
not be possible without the modification, that pres- 
ervation of hillsides having aesthetic value would be 
assured, and the modification would not impair the 
natural topography or essential character of the area. 
Authorizations do not require public hearings and are 
not subject to ULURP, but are informally referred to 
affected community boards for comment. 

BSA Special Permits: The Zoning Resolution 
delegates to the Board of Standards and Appeals the 
granting of special permits for the modification of 
certain zoning regulations which are generally more 
limited in scope or impact than those reviewed by 
the City Planning Commission. The modifications 
must satisfy findings spelled out in the Zoning 
Resolution and may include, for example, limited 
expansion of a building into a district where it would 
not otherwise be permitted, limited enlargement or 
conversion of a building to a size not otherwise per- 
mitted or adjustment of off-street parking require- 
ments. Special permits granted by the BSA are not 
subject to ULURP or City Council review. 



' 'r.. :','::■ .31' Jii%i When development of a particular 
parcel of land pursuant to zoning would be impracti- 
cal or cause the owner undue hardship, the BSA may 
grant a variance from use and bulk provisions to the 
minimum extent necessary to permit a reasonable 
use of the parcel. A variance may be granted, fol- 
lowing a public hearing, if the Board finds that there 
is a practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship 
that is caused by unique physical circumstances, 
was not caused by the property owner or his/her 
predecessors and the variance is necessary to realize 
a reasonable return on the property. The essential 
character of the neighborhood must not be altered 
or substantially impaired, and public welfare must 
not be detrimentally affected. 

ZONING ENFORCEMENT 

The NYC Department of Buildings has primary 
responsibility for enforcing the Zoning Resolution 
and for interpreting its provisions. Among its 
responsibilities, the Department of Buildings: 

• Issues building permits after review of building 
plans to determine compliance with the Zoning 
Resolution and the Building Code 

• Reviews and grants applications for certificates 
of occupancy, allowing legal occupancy of new 
or altered structures 

• Interprets provisions of the Zoning Resolution, 
subject to appeal to the BSA, and issues proce- 
dures and guidelines for its administration 

• Orders the remedy of zoning violations and, as 
appropriate, prosecutes violations 

• Maintains public records of all building permits, 
certificates of occupancy, inspections, violations 
and other property profile information, available 
at nyc.gov/buildings. 

In some cases, administrative and enforcement 
responsibilities are delegated to other agencies with 
special expertise. For example, the NYC Department 
of Environmental Protection enforces industrial 
performance standards related to air quality and 
the NYC Department of Housing Preservation 
and Development administers Inclusionary 
Housing provisions. 



Appendix C 

Guide to the NYC Zoning Resolution 



ABOUT THE RESOLUTION 

The New York City Zoning Resolution consists of 
13 articles, 126 zoning maps and eight appendices. It 
is available on the web and in a three volume print 
version. The Resolution contains the applicable 
zoning regulations for every residential, commer- 
cial, manufacturing and special purpose district, 
and maps that show the zoning designations and 
boundaries of every zoning district in the city. 

THE ZONING TEXT 

The text of the Zoning Resolution consists of 13 
articles. Each article contains a number of chapters 
and each chapter contains many sections. The date 
in parentheses at the top of the section indicates the 
most recent date on which that section was added 
or amended and became legally effective. 

Article I Interpretations; defined terms; off-street 
parking; sidewalk cafes; residential 
conversions (Sections 11-00 to 15-60) 

Article II Residence district regulations, including 
use, bulk, off-street parking and load- 
ing provisions; Inclusionary Housing 
Program; urban design and streetscape 
guideUnes; Quality Housing Program 
(Sections 21-00 to 28-50) 

Article III Commercial district regulations, including 
use, bulk, off-street parking and loading 
provisions; urban design and streetscape 
guidelines; public plazas; private roads; 
parking lots (Sections 31-00 to 37-90) 

Article IV Manufacturing district regulations, 
including use, bulk, off-street parking 
and loading provisions; performance 
standards; bicycle parking (Sections 
41-00 to 44-60) 

Article V Continuance, change or termination of 
non-conforming uses and non-comply- 
ing buildings (Sections 51-00 to 54-40) 



Article VI Regulations for major airports; water- 
front area; FRESH food stores (Sections 
61-00 to 63-60) 

Article VII Administration and enforcement; Board 
of Standards and Appeals and City 
Planning Commission discretionary 
actions; authorizations; variances; special 
permits; district boundaries; large-scale 
developments (Sections 71-00 to 79-40) 

Articles Special purpose districts (see Chapter 6 
VIII-XIII of this Handbook) 

Appendices A-Index of Uses; B-Special Purpose 
Districts; C-CEQR Designations; 
D-Restrictive Declarations; E-Plazas; 
F-Inclusionary Housing Designated 
Areas; G-Radioactive Materials; 
H-Arterial Highways. 

Definition of Terms 

All defined terms in the Resolution are italicized (or 
indicated by pound signs (#) on the DCP Website); defi- 
nitions are set forth in Article I, Chapter 2, or within 
specific chapters where the definitions apply. 

Three Major Articles 

Article II contains regulations for residence districts. 
Article III contains regulations for commercial dis- 
tricts and Article IV contains regulations for manu- 
facturing districts. Use, bulk, and parking regulations 
for each zoning district are generally set forth in 
separate chapters within the appropriate article. 

N u m h e ring Sy s I: e rn 

Each section of the Zoning Resolution has a four-, 
five-, or six-digit number. The digits before the 
hyphen indicate the article followed by the chapter 
number. The digits following the hyphen identify 
the section. For example, Section 123-60 references 
Article XII, Chapter 3, Section 60. 



In general, section numibers with a three-digit exten- 
sion, such as Section 123-651 (Special yard regula- 
tions for residential buildings), are subsections of 
the same number with a two-digit extension, such 
as Section 123-65 (Special Yard Regulations), which 
may be a subsection of a section that ends in 0, such 
as Section 123-60 (Special Bulk Regulations). 

Zoning District Symbols 

Each zoning district is designated by a letter indicat- 
ing the general use classification — R for Residence, 
C for Commercial and M for Manufacturing — fol- 
lowed by a number that indicates the levels of per- 
mitted bulk and density and required parking. In 
Rl through RIO districts, a letter suffix— A, B, D, X 
(and the number 1 in R3 and R4 districts) — indicates 
contextual bulk regulations that maintain a desired 
neighborhood character. A number suffix, such as 
Rl-2, is used in Rl districts to indicate different lot 
size requirements and in R7 districts to indicate dif- 
ferent parking requirements. Most commercial and 
all manufacturing districts have two numbers — the 
first number indicates permitted uses and the second 
number, after a hyphen, indicates permitted bulk or 
required parking or both. 

Applicability 

Most sections list or reference the applicable zoning 
districts. If the district listed has an alphabetical or 
numerical extension (C5-3, for example), the text 
applies to that specific district only; if the district 
listed, such as C5, does not have an alphabetical or 
numerical extension, the text applies to all districts 
encompassed by the basic district designation (C5-1, 
C5-1A, C5-2. C5-2A, C5-3, C5-4, C5-5). 
Where no zoning district(s) is indicated, the regula- 
tions apply to all districts covered by the article. (In 
Article II, for example, if no district designation is listed, 
the regulations apply to all residence districts.) 

Tables, Diagrams, Maps and Appendices 

Many regulations in the Zoning Resolution are in 
tabular form or are supplemented by diagrams. Text 
maps usually illustrate the special district chapters 
and are legally part of the Resolution, but they are 
not actual zoning maps. The appendices provide 
detailed information that supplements the regula- 
tions of the Zoning Resolution. 



• Appendix A — Index of Uses: An alphabetical index 
of all permitted uses shows use group(s), permitted 
zoning districts, and parking requirement categories 
(PRC), if applicable, for each use. This index (see 
page 131 for an excerpt) should be used as a quick 
reference only and is not a substitute for Sections 
32-00 and 42-00 and the special use permits of the 
Zoning Resolution. 

• Appendix B — Index of Special Purpose Dis- 
tricts: An alphabetical index shows map sym- 
bols, applicable chapters and zoning map(s), CP/ 
ULURP number and enactment dates. 

• Appendix C — City Environmental Quality Review 
(CEQR) Environmental Designations: A table 
indicates information for each designation (E-12, 
for example) assigned to a lot indicating the need 
for remediation (description, CEQR and ULURP 
numbers, applicable tax block(s)/lot(s) and zon- 
ing maps). 

• Appendix D— Zoning Map Amendment ("D") 
Restrictive Declarations: A table indicates the 
information for each number (D-23, for example) 
assigned to a lot, (CP/ULURP number, applicable 
tax block(s)/lot(s) and zoning maps). 

• Appendix E — Design Requirements for Plazas, 
Residential Plazas and Urban Plazas Developed 
Prior to October 17, 2007. 

• Appendix F — Inclusionary Housing Designated 
Areas: A series of maps depicts boundaries of 
Inclusionary Housing designated areas, listed by 
borough and community district. 

• Appendix G— Quantities of Radioactive Material. 

• Appendix H— Designation of Arterial Highways. 

THE ZONING MAPS 

A set of 126 maps, which are part of the Zoning 
Resolution, record the zoning framework of New 
York City. The maps have been drawn in a series of 35 
sections. Each map is identified by a number from 1 
to 35, and is further divided into one to four quarters, 
each identified by a letter — a, b, c or d (map 8d or 
33c, for example). Each 8V2" X 14" map covers an area 
of approximately 8,000 feet (north/south) by 12,500 
feet (east/west) and has a scale of 1 inch = 1,200 feet. 
(See How to Read Zoning Maps.) 



HOW TO USE THE ZONING RESOLUTION 



HOW TO DETERMINE WHAT MAY BE BUILT ON 
A SPECIFIC PIECE OF LAND 

• Identify the zoiiiug district in which the prop- 
erty is located by referring to the appropriate 
zoning map. (See How To Read Zoning Maps.) 

• Find the article indicated by the initial district 
symbol (R=residence district; C=commercial; 
M=manufacturing). Look at Article II for residence 
district regulations, Article III for commercial dis- 
trict regulations and Article IV for manufacturing 
district regulations. Zoning lots that are within 
a shaded area on the map are subject to the appli- 
cable special district regulations. 

• Read the general provisions at the beginning of 
each applicable chapter for special regulations or 
information. Continue on to all of the sections 
that relate to the zoning district. 

• Check the Use Groiif^ chart at the beginning of 
the article to see which use groups are permitted 
in the district. 

• Read the sections on these use groups to see which 
uses are permitted in the district as-of-right and 
which uses are allowed only by a syecial permit 
from the City Plaiiiiitig Commission or the 
Board of Standards and Apf^eals. 

• Review the bulk regulations in the article to 
determine the floor area ratio (FAR) and the 
possible size of the structure that may be built. 

• Determine which parking regulations apply 
to the proposed use and the applicable zoning 
district. 



HOW TO DETERMINE WHERE A SPECIFIC USE 
MAY BE LOCATED 

For quick reference, turn to the Index of Uses 
(Appendix A of the Zoning Resolution) to determine 
the zoning districts in which the use is allowed (see 
excerpt below). Then read the applicable regulations 
in the Resolution. 

• Identify the use group in which the use appears 
by referring to Chapter 2 in Articles II, III 
and IV of the Resolution. A specific use may 
be listed in more than one use group, usually 
depending on variations in the type, size or 
capacity of the use. For example, a theater may 
be in either one of two use groups depending on 
its capacity, or a motorcycle showroom may be 
in one of two use groups depending on whether 
or not repairs are made on the premises. 

In the Index of Uses, for districts listed without 
an asterisk, a use is permitted as-of-right. For 
districts marked with a single asterisk (*), a 
special permit from the Board of Standards and 
Appeals is required. For districts marked with 
a double asterisk (**), a special permit from the 
City Planning Commission is required. 

• Determine which zoning districts allow the use. 

• Scrutinize the zoning maps to find out where 
those districts are located. 



Use 



Ugg Districts in which Permitted 

Group R1-R2 R3-R10 CI C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 Ml M2 M3 



Drug stores [PRC-B] 



6 
12 



CI C2 



Dry cleaning or clothes pressing 
establishments, limited as to floor area, 
solvents and machine capacity [PRC-B] 



CI C2 



C4 C5 C6 CO MI M2 M3 

C4 C6 C7 C8 Ml 



C4 C5 C6 



C8 Ml M2 M3 



Excerpt from Index of Uses 



HOW TO READ ZONING MAPS 



FIND THE MAP 

Find the zoning map for a neighborhood by check- 
ing out the Index of Zoning Maps in the Zoning 
Resolution or the Index Map online. For a specific 
property, use the Map Finder online where you can 
search by address, intersection or block and lot. 




Note the section and quarter in which the property 
lies, such as map 5d or 22a. Each map shows all 
mapped streets and blocks and, most importantly, 
the zoning district(s) for the property and the 
neighborhood. 

DETERMINE THE ZONING DISTRICT 

On the appropriate map, find the block and zoning 
district for the property. Each district is bounded by 
heavy solid lines. Where a boundary is not the cen- 
terhne of a street, the distance between the boundary 

L. 




and street line (front lot line) is usually marked on the 
map. Where it is not marked, the boundary parallel 
to the length of a block is the centerline of the block. 
Where the boundary is parallel to the short width of 
the block, the distance between the boundary and 
street line is as shown below. (See Section 76-00 of 
the Zoning Resolution.) 



Boundary 
Distance 


District 


200 ft 


C1-1 C4-1 C4-2 C4-4 


150 ft 


CI -2 CI -3 C2-1 C2-2 C2-3 C4-3 C7 


100 ft 


Other districts without dimensions 



Note the zoning district in which the property is 
located. A letter identifies general use categories — 
R for residence districts, C for commercial districts 
and M for manufacturing districts. The first number 
after R generally indicates bulk and parking con- 
trols; the numbers after C or M refer to the range 
of permitted uses and, in most cases, bulk and 
parking controls. See the Zoning Resolution for the 

applicable regulations. 
:±'^E2a^::^ „X^ | L>si _ ^ ^_ 




il^ '%X s^ r 



Commercial overlay districts (Cl-1 through Cl-5 
and C2-1 through C2-5) are mapped within residence 
districts and designated on the zoning maps by vari- 
ous patterns. A key to these patterns is shown below 
and on every zoning map. 

CI 1 CI 2 CM CI 4 CI 5 



/ / / / / 
/ / / / / 



C2 1 

WZZi 



C2 2 



C2-3 

W777y 



C2 4 



C2 5 



':/.■/.■/.■/. 



Special furyosc districts are shown as shaded 
areas, designated by letter or numerical symbols, 
such as OP for the Special Ocean Parkway District. 
Properties within a special district may be subject 
to the regulations of both the special district and the 
underlying zoning district. 



E2. 






FTSn 



RJi 



mm 



tz 




Individual maps can be downloaded from the DCP 
website or purchased from the Department of City 
Planning bookstore. 



Appendix D 

Guide to the DCP Website 

www.nyc.gov/planning 



The complete Zoning Resolution is available 
online. Zoning amendments are incorporated into 
the Resolution and made available on the award- 
winning Department of City Planning (DCP) 
website soon after passage by the City Council. 
(Updates to the print version of the Zoning 
Resolution generally are issued twice a year.) The 
ability to search the text and zoom in on detailed 
zoning maps are powerful tools for easily accessing 
the Zoning Resolution. All files are in PDF format 
and require Adobe Acrobat Reader''', which is 
available online free. 

In addition to the Zoning Resolution, the 
DCP website includes supplementary pages 
of informative material about the process and 
underlying principles of zoning and land use 
planning. These resources, which continue to be 
expanded and updated, facilitate a user-friendly 
website where visitors can learn how the zoning 
concepts and rules summarized in this Handbook 
are used by planners to guide development. 

Please revisit the site periodically to ensure that 
your information is current, especially if you 
download text or print a map. 

The Department of City Planning's home page, 
accessed at www.nyc.gov/planning, features 
information about the agency's current planning 
and zoning proposals and recently-approved 
projects, listed by borough under Projects and 
Proposals on the menu at the upper left of the 
page. There is a detailed overview of each project, 
presenting context, existing and proposed zoning, 
graphics and public review status. The Land 
Use Process section on the menu links to City 
Planning Commission (CPC) reports, which can be 



accessed by ULURP number, project name, borough, 
community district and effective date. It also links 
to the CPC review session calendar and agenda, 
the ULURP review process, including status reports 
on active applications before the Commission, an 
explanation of the CEQR review process, including 
E designations, information on community-based 
planning opportunities and the DCP application 
process (Central Intake). Every community 
district overview links to projects and proposals 
that are applicable to that neighborhood. Useful 
data and tools such as the address locator and 
census profile, population facts and projections, 
as well as neighborhood maps, district profiles 
and citywide land use and transportation 
planning information are easily accessible. All 
sections of the DCP website are available for 
translation by selecting the Translate This Page link. 

HOW TO ACCESS ONLINE ZONING TEXT 

On the home page, select the link to Zoning on the 
menu and then select Zoning Text. 

On the Zoning Text page, scroll down to the table 
that lists the Table of Contents, Articles I-VII, 
the special purpose district chapters in Articles 
VIII-XIII and the eight Appendices (A-H) to the 
Zoning Resolution. From the table, select a specific 
chapter, special district or appendix or go to the 
table of contents file, which lists the chapter titles 
and major section titles for the 13 articles. It is also 
possible to view the entire Resolution in one file. 

Each file contains bookmarks which are quick naviga- 
tion links to chapters and sections. Using Adobe Ac- 
robat Reader" software, you can search for particular 
information by section number, keyword or phrase. 



HOW TO CHECK FOR RECENT ZONING TEXT 
AMENDMENTS 

At the top of every section in the onhne Zoning 

Resolution is the date that indicates the last time 

that section was modified. As the Resolution is 

updated frequently, the most recent date that the 

zoning text was amended can be found by checking 

the following online pages, as applicable: 

• For the Resolution, the date listed in the first 
paragraph of the Zoning Text page 

• By article and chapter (23-00, for example), and 
the appendices, the date listed in the table on 
the Zoning Text page. The latest effective date 
is also listed on the title page of each online 
chapter and appendix 

• By amendment, the Zoning Amendment Index 

page lists all recent text amendments by name, 
effective date, ULURP number and new/modi- 
fied sections. 

HOW TO ACCESS ONUNE ZONING MAPS 

On the home page, select the link to Zoning in the menu 
at the upper left of the page and then Zoning Maps. 
If you do not know the map number for your prop- 
erty or neighborhood, but you know the address or 
block and lot, check the Map Finder for the appro- 
priate zoning map. Otherwise, select Index Map to 
check geographically and click on the correct section 
of the borough map. If you know which map you are 
looking for, directly select the link to that map on 
the Zoning Map Table and click on the map number 
to display it. (The Zoning Map Table also lists the 
latest effective date.) The small rectangles displayed 
in the map key located to the lower right on each 
zoning map can be used to navigate to adjoining 
maps. Any map or portion of a map can be easily 
copied or printed at the original size or rescaled. 



Zoning Map - Date of Most Recent Zoning Cliange 


la -10/11/05 


lb -0/11/05 


Ic- 2/15/06 


Id -2/3/10 


2a- 7/25/07 


2b - 7/25/07 




2d - 6/20/74 


3a -9/8/88 


3b -9/30/09* 


3c -8/19/03 


3d -6/9/10* 



HOW TO CHECK FOR RECENT MAP 
AMENDMENTS 

The Zoning Map Table lists all 126 zoning maps 
together with the effective date of the most recent 
mapping amendment for each map. 
Newly adopted map changes are posted on the 
web as sketch maps until the offical zoning map 
is available. Maps with linked sketch maps for 
newly adopted zoning changes are identified in the 
Zoning Map Table with a red asterisk (*) and have a 
red rectangle superimposed on the map to indicate 
the area of the change. All adopted changes, includ- 
ing those shown on the sketch maps, are in effect as 
of the date listed on the table. Each adopted change 
is also listed chronologically in the Update Log on 
the Zoning Map Updates page. 
Proposed zoning map changes are identified in the 
table with a blue asterisk (*) and by a blue rectangle 
superimposed on the map to indicate the area of 
the proposed change. The sketch map is included 
to show how the proposed change would alter the 
zoning map, if adopted. Proposed changes are NOT 
currently in effect and are not part of the official 
zoning map. 

Click within the red or blue rectangle on the main 
zoning map to display the sketch map. 



V«lJ fjL J .» . S !tL 



a'h »i iON 



The index of Special Purpose Districts, areas shaded 
in grey on the zoning maps, is in Appendix B of the 
Zoning Resolution. The locations of Incltisioiiary 
Housing designated areas are shown in Appendix 
F of the Zoning Resolution. 

The website is updated frequently. Please revisit 
the site periodically to ensure that your informa- 
tion is current, especially if you download text or 
print a map. 

The web version of the Zoning Resolution is pro- 
vided for reference and the convenience of view- 
ing the current text of the Resolution in an easily 
accessible format. The print version of the Zoning 
Resolution, containing all of the text, diagrams, maps 
and appendices, is available for purchase from the 
Department of City Planning bookstore. Purchase of 
a subscription includes all updates — zoning text and 
map amendments — for a two-year period. 



Appendix E 

Zoning Data Tables 



ZONING DATA TABLE 1 























1 




























Single-family detached residences 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


y 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Two-family detached residences 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Semi-detached residences 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


/ 


/ 


All residences 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


/ 


Residential FAR (max) 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.85 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


with attic allowance 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.02 


0.6 


0.6 


0.6 


0.6 


Community facility FAR (max) 


0.5' 


0.5' 


0.5' 


0.5' 


0.5' 


0.5' 


1,0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


Lot width (min) 


Detached 


100 ft 


60 ft 


60 ft 


40 ft 


40 ft 


30 ft 


25 ft 


35 ft 


40 ft 


40 ft 


Other 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 ft 


18 ft 


Lot area (min) 


Detached 


9,500 sf 


5,700 sf 


5,700 sf 


3,800 sf 


3,800 sf 


2,850 sf 


2,375 sf 


3,325 sf 


3,800 sf 


3,800 sf 


Other 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,700 sf 


1,700 sf 


Open space ratio (min) 


150.0 


150.0 


- 


150.0 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lot coverage (max) 


- 


- 


309d 


- 


309u 


-" 


-' 


-•' 


35% 


359b 


Front yard depth (min) 


20 ft 


20 ft 


20 ft' 


15 ft 


15 ft' 


15 ft 


10 ft' 


10 ft' 


15 ft 


15 ft 


Side yards 

(number) 


Detached 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2' 


2 


2 


2 


Semi-detached 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


Total width of 
side yards (min) 


Detached 


35 ft 


20 ft 


20 ft 


13 ft 


13 ft 


10 ft' 


8 ft' 


1 ft' 


13 ft 


13 ft 


Semi-detached 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 ft 


8 ft 


Each side yard 

(min) 


Detached 


15 ft 


8 ft 


8 ft 


5 ft 


5 ft 


2 ft 


- 


2 ft 


5 ft 


5 ft 


Semi-detached 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rear yard depth (min) 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


20 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


Perimeter wall height (max) 


- 


- 


25 ft 


- 


21 ft 


21 ft 


21 ft 


21 ft 


21 ft 


21 ft 


Building height (max) 


-'-' 


-'■ 


35 ft 


-" 


35 ft 


35 ft 


35 ft 


35 ft 


35 ft 


35 ft 


Off-street parking 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 
dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 
unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 



Up to 1.0 FAR by special permit 

Governed by yard requirements 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard 

Zero lot line buildings require only one side yard, at least 8 feet wide 

Minimum of 8 ft required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 

Height controlled by sky exposure plane 

Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth Management Areas 



ZONING DATA TABLE 2 



^: ■ 3-:tj: 


Ma»MssissHs^l;^ w^ 


^R,;:-^:; 


^SS-^-K-'^^^aa^^gs; 


.. :, 
















mrMsu 


»Mer<-DensjtvJR4 


:^ir-i- 


iI±SL*JB 


Em.^m 


^^P 


f 




























Single-family detached 
residences 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


^ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Two-family detached residences 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


Semi-detached residences 


/ 


/ 


- 


/ 


/ 


/ 


- 


/ 


/ 


All residences 


/ 


- 


- 


/ 


/ 


/ 


- 


/ 


/ 


Residential FAR (max) 


0.75 


0.75 


0.75 


0.9 


R4:1.35 
R5:l,65 


1.25 


1.1 


1.35 


2.0 


with attic allowance 


0.9 


0.9 


0.9 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Community Facility FAR (max) 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


- 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


Lot width (min) 


Detached 


40 ft 


25 ft 


30 ft 


25 ft 


40 ft 


40 ft 


30 ft 


25 ft 


25 ft 


Other 


18 ft 


18 ft 


- 


18 ft 


18 ft 


18 ft 


~ 


18 ft 


18 ft 


Lot area (min) 


Detached 3 


800 sf 


2,375 sf 


2,850 sf 


2,375 sf 


3,800 sf 


3,800 sf 


2,850 sf 


2,375 sf 


2,375 sf 


Other 1 


700 sf 


1,700 sf 


- 


1,700 sf 


1,700 sf 


1,700 sf 


_ 


1,700 sf 


1,700 sf 


Open space ratio (min) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lot coverage 

(max) 


Corner lot 


45% 


_2 


_2 


55% 


559'o 


55% 


_2 


55% 


809b 


Interior lot 


60';b 


Front yard depth (min) 


10 ft' 


1 ft^ 


1 ft' 


5 ft' 


18 ft 


10 ft' 


10 ft* 


Stt' 


5 ft' 


Side yards 

(number) 


Detached 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2« 


Semi-detached 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


18 


Total width of 
side yards (min) 


Detached 


13 ft 


8 ff'^ 


lOft^ 


8 ft'^ 


13 ft 


13 ft 


10 ft'' 


Bff'^ 


Sff-^ 


Semi-detached 


8 ft 


4ft5 


— 


4ft^ 


8 ft 


8ft 


— 


4ft^ 


4 ft 


Each side yard 

(min) 


Detached 


5 ft 


— 


2 ft 


— 


5 ft 


5ft 


2 ft 


— 


_ 


Semi-detached 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


Rear yard depth (min) 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


Perimeter wall height (max) 


25 ft 


25 ft 


21 ft 


- 


R4: 25 ft 
R5: 30 ft 


30 ft" 


25 ft 


30 ft" 


- 


Building height (max) 


35 ft 


35 ft 


35 ft 


24 ft 


R4: 35 ft 
R5: 33 ft 


40 ft 


35 ft 


33 ft 


40 ft 


Off-street parking d 


1 per 

welling 
unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


66% of 

dwelling 

units 


85'',b of 

dwelling 

units 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


66% of 

dwelling 

units 


66<!b of 

dwelling 

units 



If front yard depth exceeds 10 ft, it must be at least 18 feet 

Governed by yard requirements 

Front yard must be at least as deep as an adjacent front yard; in R4B, R5B St RSD districts, must be as deep as one adjacent front yard but no deeper than the other 

Zero lot line buildings require only one side yard, at least 8 feet wide 

Minimum of 8 ft required between buildings on adjacent zoning lots 

Street wall height in R5 and R5B districts 

Regulations may differ in Lower Density Growth fAanagement Areas 

Side yards not required for existing zoning lots less than 30 feet wide 



ZONING DATA TABLE 3 





t 


















1 


























Residential FAR 

(max) 


Wide street 


0.78-2.43 
(range) 


3.0' 
2.43^ 


3.0 


2.0 


0.87-3.44 
(range) 


4.0' 
3.44^ 


5.08 


4.0 


3.0 


4.2 


5.0 


Narrow street 


2.2 


3.44 


Community facility FAR 


4.8 


4.8 


3.0 


2.0 


R7-1:4.8 
R7-2: 6.5 


R7-1:4.8 
R7-2; 6.5 


5.0 


4.0 


3.0 


4.2 


5.0 


Open space ratio 


275-375 
(range) 


- 


- 


- 


15.5-25.5 
(range) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lot coverage 

(max) 


Corner lot 


- 


80% 


809!) 


809b 


- 


809o 


7096 


8096 


8096 


8096 


8096 


Interior lot 


65%' 

eo^b- 


659o 


609b 


659o 


6596 


6596 


659o 


7096 


Base height 

(min/max) 


Wide street 


- 


40-60 ft' 
40-55 ft^ 


40-60 ft 


30-40 ft 


- 


40-65 ft' 
40-60 ft' 


65 ft 


40-65 ft 


40-60 ft 


60-85 ft 


60-85 ft 


Narrow street 


30-45 ft 


40-60 ft 


Building height 

(max) 


Wide street 


Sky 

exposure 

plane 


70 ft' 
65 ft' 


70 ft 


50 ft 


Sky 

exposure 

plane 


80 ft' 

75 ft' 


185 ft 


80 ft 


75 ft 


100 ft 


125ft 


Narrow street 


55 ft 


75 ft 


Rear yard depth (min) 


30 ft 


30 ft 


soft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


Off-street parking (min) 


70<!& 


50% 


509a 


509b 


R7-1: 609o 
R7-2: 5096 


509'o 


5096 


5096 


5096 


5096 


5096 



' Wide street outside Manhattan Core 
ZONING DATA TABLE 4 



' Wide street within Manhattan Core 

































































Residential 
FAR' (max) 


Wide 
Street 


0.94-6.02 
(range) 


72' 
6.02^ 


6.02 


4.0 


6.02 


0.99-752 
(range) 


7.52 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


Narrow 
Street 


6.02 


Community facility 
FAR (max) 


6.5 


6.5 


6.5 


4.0-' 


6.0 


10.0 


R9QH: 10.0 
R9A: 75 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


Open space ratio 


5.9-11.9 
(range) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.0-9.0 
(range) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lot cover- 
age 

(max) 


Comer 
lot 


- 


8096 


809b 


809b 


809o 


- 


809u 


709b 


8096 


809o 


- 


ioo9;i 


100"„ 


Interior 
lot 


709b 


7096 


709o 


709b 


709o 


709b 


709b 


709.> 


7096 


Base height 

(min/max) 


Wide 
street 


- 


60-85 ft 


60-85 
ft 


55-60 

ft 


60-85 

ft 


60-85 ft 
(wide St) 


60-102 ft 


90 ft 


60-85 ft 


105-120 
ft 


60-85 ft 
(wide St) 


125-150 ft 


60-85 ft 


Narrow 
street 


60-80 ft 


60-95 ft 


60-120 
ft 


60-1 25 ft 


Building 
height 

(max) 


Wide 
street 


Sky 

exposure 

plane 


120ft 


120 ft 


75 ft 


150 ft 


Sky exposure 

plane or 
tower rules 


145 ft 


280 ft 


Tower 
rules 


170 ft 


Tower 
rules 


210 ft 


Tower 
rules 


Narrow 
street 


105 ft 


135 ft 


160 ft 


185ft 


Rear yard depth 

(min) 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


30 ft 


Off-street parking^ 

(min) 


409o 


409,. 


409b 


S09b" 


409;, 


4096 


409b 


409b 


409b 


409b 


409b 


4096 


409,, 



' Wide street outside Manhattan Core 

^ Wide street within Manhattan Core 

' FAR may differ in Inctusionary Housing designated areas 

' S.W permitted in Manhattan Community District 8 



Waived within Manhattan Core, except within Special l-ludson Yards District 
40% in Brooldyn 

May be mapped witltin waterfront areas and Speciai Mixed Use Districts only; R7-3 
may also be mapped In the Special Long Island City Mixed Use District 



ZONING DATA TABLE 5 








Y Floor Are< 


a Ratios 


Commercial Overia 


Commercial 
Residential Overlay 
District FAR' 


Residential 
FAR^ 


Community 

Facility 

FAR' 


Rl, R2 


1.0 


0.5 


0.5 


R2A 


1.0 


0.5 


0.5 


R2X 


1.0 


0.85^ 


0.5 


R3-1 


1.0 


0.5' 


1.0 


R3-2 


1.0 


0.5' 


1.6 


R3A, R3X 


1.0 


0.5' 


1.0 


R4, R4-1, R4A 


1.0 


0.75' 


2.0 


R4 Infill 


1.0 


1.35 


2.0 


R4B 


1.0 


0.9 


2.0 


R5 


1.0 


1.25 


2.0 


R5 Infill 


1.0 


1.65 


2.0 


R5A 


1.0 


1.1 


2.0 


R5B 


1.0 


1.35 


2.0 


R5D 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


R6 


2.0 


0.78-2.43 
(range) 


4.8 


R6A 


2.0 


3.0 


3.0 


R6B 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


R7-1 


2.0 


0.87-3.44 

(range) 


4.8 


R7-2 


2.0 


0.87-3.44 
(range) 


6.5 


R7A 


2.0 


4.0 


4.0 


R7B 


2.0 


3.0 


3.0 


R7D 


2.0 


4.2 


4.2 


R7X 


2.0 


5.0 


5.0 


R8 


2.0 


0.94-6.02 
(range) 


6.5 


R8A 


2.0 


6.02 


6.5 


R8B 


2.0 


4.0 


4.0'' 


R8X 


2.0 


6.02 


6.0 


R9 


2.0 


0.99-7.52 

(range) 


10.0 


R9A 


2.0 


7.52 


7.5 


R9D 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


R9X 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


RIO, RIO A 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RlOX 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0 



1 CUl through C1-5 and C2-1 through C2-5 districts are commercial 
overlays mapped within residential districts. Mapped within an Rl through 
R5 district, except an R5D district, the commercial MR is hO; within 
an R5D district or an R6 through RIO district, the commercial FAR is 2.0. 
Residential FAR for a commercial overlay district is determined by the residen- 
tial district regulations. 
^ FAR may differ with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 
' FAR is the same for community facility buildings and for buildings with 
both commercial and community facility uses; in Rl districts, however, 
the FAR is 1.0 for buildings with commercial and community facility uses 

* Up to 20% increase for attic allowance 

^ 5.7 in Manhattan Community District 8 



ZONING DATA TABLE 6 






C1-C4 


• It • 


.. « ._ «_.. . 1 


Commercial Distncis; rioor Mrca naLiua ■ 


^^^B Community^ Residential 1 
^^H Commercial Residential Facility District 1 
^^H FAR FAR' FAR Equivalent | 


C1-6 


2.0 


0. 87-3.44-' 
(range) 


6.5 


R7 


C1-6A 


2.0 


4.0 


4.0 


R7A 


Cl-7 


2.0 


0.94-6.02' 
(range) 


6.5 


R8 


C1-7A 


2.0 


6.02 


6.5 


R8A 


Cl-8 


2.0 


0.99-7.52 

(range) 


10.0" 


R9 


C1-8A 


2.0 


7.52 


7.5 


R9A 


C1-8X 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


R9X 


Cl-9 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C1-9A 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C2-6 


2.0 


0.87-3.44' 
(range) 


6.5 


R7 


C2-6A 


2.0 


4.0 


4.0 


R7A 


C2-7 


2.0 


0.99-7.52 
(range) 


10.0" 


R9 


C2-7A 


2.0 


7.52 


7.5 


R9A 


C2-7X 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


R9X 


C2-8 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C2-8A 


2.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C3 


0.5 


0.5' 


1.0 


R3-2 


C3A 


0.5 


0.5' 


1.0 


R3A 


C4-1 


1.0 


1.25 


2.0 


R5 


C4-2 


3.4 


0.78-2.43" 
(range) 


4.8 


R6 


C4-2A 


3.0 


3.0 


3,0 


R6A 


C4-2F 


3.4 


0.94-6.02^ 

(range) 


6.5 


R8 


C4-3 


3.4 


0.78-2.43^ 
(range) 


4.8 


R6 


C4-3A 


3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


R6A 


C4-4 


3.4 


0.87-3.44' 
(range) 


6.5 


R7 


C4-4A 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


R7A 


C4-4D 


3.4 


6.02 


6.5 


R8A 


C4-5 


3.4 


0.87-3.44^ 
(range) 


6.5 


R7 


C4-5A 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


R7A 


C4-5D 


4.2 


4.0 


4.2 


R7D 


C4-5X 


4.0 


5.0 


5.0 


R7X 


C4-6 


3.4 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C4-6A 


3.4 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C4-7 


10.0° 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C4-7A 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 



ZONING DATA TABLE 7 






c5-a 


. 




> Commercial Districts: nour Mrea nanus I 






■ 


^^^H Community' Residential 1 
^^1 Commercial Residential Facility District 1 
^^M FAR FAR' FAR Equivalent | 


C5-1 


4.0 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C5-1A 


4.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C5-2 


10.0" 


10.0 


10.0" 


RIO 


C5-2A 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C5-3 


15.0" 


10.0 


15.0" 


RIO 


C5-4 


lO.O- 


10.0 


10.0° 


RIO 


CS-5 


15.0" 


10.0 


15.0° 


RIO 


C6-1 


6.0" 


0.87-3.44^ 

(range) 


6.5" 


R7 


C6-1A 


6.0 


0.78-2.43-" 
(range) 


6.0° 


R6 


C6-2 


6.0" 


0.94-6.02' 

(range) 


6.5" 


R8 


C6-2A 


6.0 


6.02 


6.5 


R8A 


C6-3 


6.0" 


0.99-7.52 
(range) 


10.0° 


R9 


C6-3A 


6.0 


7.52 


7.5 


R9A 


C6-3D 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


R9D 


C6-3X 


6.0 


9.0 


9.0 


R9X 


C6-4 


10.0" 


10.0° 


10.0 


RIO 


C6-4A 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RIOA 


C6-4X 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


RlOX 


C6-5 


10.0" 


10.0" 


10.0 


RIO 


C6-6 


15.0° 


10.0° 


15.0 


RIO 


C6-7 


15.0" 


10.0" 


15.0 


RIO 


C6-8 


10.0" 


10.0" 


10.0 


RIO 


C6-9 


15.0" 


10.0" 


15.0 


RIO 


C7 


2.0 


- 


- 


- 


C8-1 


1.0 


- 


2.4 


- 


C8-2 


2.0 


- 


4.8 


- 


C8-3 


2.0 


- 


6.5 


- 


C8-4 


5.0 


- 


6.5 


- 



ZONING DATA TABLE 8 



" In CI to C6 districts, nursing homes and non-profit residential facilities 
limited to residential FAR, except by special permit 

^ 4.0 FAR on wide streets outside Manhattan Core under Quality Housing 

Program 
' 7.2 FAR on wide streets outside Manhattan Core under Quality Housing 

Program 

•• 3.0 FAR on wide street outside Manhattan Core; 2.43 on wide street 
within the Manhattan Core; 2.2 on narrow streets (under Quality 
Housing Program) 

^ Up to 20% increase for attic allowance 

' Up to 20% increase for a public plaza bonus 

' FAR may differ in inclusionary Housing designated areas 





• .■_ n -. * . 


- n ^S - 1 


Manufacturing Distrm noor Mr«a nai.iu» 


^^^^^^1 Community 
^^^^H Manufacturing Commercial Facility 
^^^^H FAR FAR 


Ml-1 


1.0 


1.0 


2.4 


Ml -2 


2.0 


2.0 


4.8 


Ml-3 


5.0 


5.0 


6.5 


Ml-4 


2.0 


2.0 


6.5 


M1-5 


5.0 


5.0 


6.5 


Ml -5 A 


5.0 


5.0 


6.5 


M1-5B 


5.0 


5.0 


6.5 


M1-5M 


5.0 


5.0 


6.5 


M1-6 


10.0' 


10.0' 


10.0' 


M1-6M 


10.0- 


10.0' 


10.0- 


M2-1 


2.0 


2.0 


- 


M2-2 


5.0 


5.0 


- 


M2-3 


2.0 


2.0 


- 


M2-4 


5.0 


5.0 


- 


M3-1 


2.0 


2.0 


- 


M3-2 


2.0 


2.0 


- 



" Only community facilities in Use Croup 4 permitted 
- Up to 12.0 FAR with bonus 



FAR AND HEIGHT SUMMARY 1 





DISTRICT 


FAR 


HOUSING 
TYPE 


PERIMETER WALL 
HEIGHT' (in feet) 


MAX HEIGHT' 

(in feet) 


R 


CF 


R1-1 


0.5 


0.53 


a 


na 


na^ 


Rl-2 


0.5 


0.5^ 


a 


na 


na- 


R1-2A 


0.5 


0.53 


a 


25 


35 


R2 


0.5 


0.53 


a 


na 


na^ 


R2A 


0.5 


0.5' 


a 


21 


35 


R2X 


1 .02' 


0.5^ 


a 


21 


35 


R3-1 


0.6" 


1.0 


a, b, c 


21 


35 


R3-2 


0.6^ 


1.0 


d 


21 


35 


R3A 


0.6" 


1.0 


a, b 


21 


35 


R3X 


0.6" 


1.0 


a, b 


21 


35 


R4 


0.9" 


2.0 


d 


25 


35 


R4-1 


0.9" 


2.0 


a, b, c 


25 


35 


R4A 


0.9" 


2.0 


a, b 


21 


35 


R4B 


0.9 


2.0 


d 


24 


24 


R5 


1.25 


2.0 


d 


30 


40 


R5A 


1.1 


2.0 


a, b 


25 


35 


R5B 


1.35 


2.0 


d 


30 


33 


R5D 


2.0 


2.0 


d 


— 


40 



For residential buildingi 
Heiglit controlled by sky exposure plane 
Up to 1.0 FAR by special permit 
Includes attic allowance of 20% 



Housing Type: a = single family detached; b = two-family detached; c = semi-detached; d = all residences 



^miT^ 


DISTRICT 


FAR 


BASE HEIGHT (in feeO 


MAX HEIGHT 

(in feet) 


R' 


CF 


Min 


Max 


R6A 


3.0 


3.0 


40 


60 


70 


R6B 


2.0 


2.0 


30 


40 


50 


R7A 


4.0 


4.0 


40 


65 


80 


R7B 


3.0 


3.0 


40 


60 


75 


R7D 


4.2 


4.2 


60 


85 


TOO 


R7X 


5.0 


5.0 


60 


85 


125 


R8A 


6.02 


6.5 


60 


85 


120 


R8B 


4.0^ 


4.0 


55 


60 


75 


R8X 


6.02 


6.0 


60 


85 


150 


R9A 


7.52 


7.5 


60 


95/1 02' 


135/145' 


R9D 


9.0 


9.0 


60 


85 


Tower 


R9X 


9.0 


9.0 


60/105' 


120 


1 60/1 70' 


R10A 


10.0 


10.0 


60/125' 


125/150' 


185/210' 


R10X 


10.0 


10.0 


60 


85 


Tower 



FAR may differ with Inclusionary Housing Program bonus 
Up to 5. 1 FAR in CDS in Manhattan 
Narrow street /Wide street 



R = Residential CF = Community Facility 



FAR AND HEIGHT SUMMARY 2 



Commercial Contextual Districts 1 


DISTRICT 


FAR 


BASE HEIGHT 

(in feet) 


MAX HT 

(in feet) 




C 


R' 


CF 


Min 


Max 




C1-6A 


2.02 


4.0 


4.0 


40 


65 


80 


C1-7A 


2.0^ 


6.02 


6.5 


60 


85 


120 


C1-8A 


2.0 


7.52 


7.5 


60 


95/102' 


135/145' 


C1-8X 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


60/1 05 ■ 


120 


160/170' 


C1-9A 


2.0 


10.05 


10.0 


60/125-^ 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C2-6A 


2.0^ 


4.0 


4.0 


40 


65 


80 


C2-7A 


2.0 


7.52 


7.5 


60 


95/102' 


135/145' 


C2-7X 


2.0 


9.0 


9.0 


60/105' 


120 


160/170' 


C2-8A 


2.0 


1 0.05 


10.0 


60/1 25^ 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C3A 


0.5 


0.6^ 


1.0 


— 


30 


30 


C4-2A 


3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


40 


60 


70 


C4-3A 


3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


40 


60 


70 


C4-4A 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


40 


65 


80 


C4-4D 


3.4 


6.02 


6.5 


60 


85 


120 


C4-5A 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


40 


65 


80 


C4-5D 


4.2 


4.0 


4.2 


60 


85 


100 


C4-5X 


4.0 


5.0 


5.0 


60 


85 


125 


C4-6A 


3.4 


10.0 


10.0 


60/125' 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C4-7A 


10.05 


10.0 


10.0 


60/1 25' 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C5-1A 


4.0 


10.0 


10.0 


60/125' 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C5-2A 


10.05 


10.0 


10.0 


60/125' 


125/150' 


185/210' 


C6-2A 


6.0 


6.02 


6.5 


60 


85 


120 


C6-3A 


6.0 


7.52 


7.5 


60 


95/102' 


135/145' 


C6-3D 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


60 


85 


Tower 


C6-3X 


6.0 


9.0 


9.0 


60/105' 


120 


160/170' 


C6-4A 


10.0^ 


10.0 


10.0 


60/125' 


125/150' 


185/210'- 


C6-4X 


10.05 


10.0 


10.0 


60 


85 


Tower 



' FAR may differ with Indusionary Housing Program bonus 

' Limited to one floor in buildings with residences 

' Narrow street/Wide street 

■• Includes attic allowance of 20% 

'' Up to 1 2.0 FAR with public plaza bonus 

Commercial overlay FAR in Rl through R5 districts is 1 .0 
Commercial overlay FAR in R6 through Rl districts is 2.0 

C = Commercial R = Residential CF = Community Facility 



Attic Allowance 



/ Roof must rise 

a minimum of 

V 7 inches per foot 



Glossary of Planning Terms 



This glossary provides brief explanations of plan- 
ning and zoning terminology, including terms 
highlighted in the Zoning Handbook. Words and 
phrases followed by an asterisk (*) in the Glossary 
are legally defined terms in the Zoning Resolution of 
the City of New York, and can be found primarily in 
Section 12-10 of the Resolution. Consult the Zoning 
Resolution for the complete legal definitions. 

Accessory Use* 

An accessory use is a use that is incidental to and cus- 
tomarily found in connection with the principal use. An 
accessory use must be conducted on the same zoning lot 
as the principal use to which it is related, unless the dis- 
trict regulations permit another location for the accessory 
use. (Off-site accessory parking facilities, for example, are 
permitted in certain zoning districts.) 

Air Rights (see Development Riglits) 

Arts Bonus (see Incentive Zoning) 

As-of-right Development 

An as-of-right development complies with all applicable 
zoning regulations and does not require any discretion- 
ary action by the City Planning Commission or Board of 
Standards and Appeals. Most developments and enlarge- 
ments in the city are as-of-right. 

Attaclied Building* (see Building) 

Attic Allowance 

An attic allowance is an increase of up to 20 percent in 
the maximum floor area ratio (FAR) for the provision of 
a pitched roof. The allowance is available in R2X districts 
and all R3 and R4 (except R4B) districts. 

Outside of Lower Density Growth Management Areas 
(LDGMA), the increased floor area must be directly 
beneath the pitched roof and have a ceiling height 





Attic Allowance in Lower Density Crowth Management Areas 

between five and eight feet. In an LDGMA, the pitch 
of the roof must be steeper, there are no restrictions on 
ceiling height and the increased floor area need not be 
located in the attic space. 

Authorization 

An authorization is a discretionary action taken by the 
City Planning Commission (CPC) that modifies specific 
zoning requirements if certain findings have been met. 
Authorizations are not subject to ULURP review and the 
CPC does not hold public hearings on authorizations. The 
CPC generally refers such applications to the appropriate 
community board(s) for comment. 



' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Base Height 

The base height of a building is the maximum permitted 
height of the front wall of a building before any required 
setback. A building is required to meet a minimum base 
height only when the height of the building will exceed 
the maximum base height. 

Base Plane* 

The base plane is a horizontal plane from which the 
height of a building is measured. It is utilized in most 
lower-density and contextual districts, and for property 
subject to waterfront zoning. Often, the base plane is at 
curb level; on sites that slope upwards or downwards from 
a street, or on large lots where buildings are far from a 
street, the base plane is adjusted to more accurately reflect 
the level at which the building meets the ground. 

Basement* 

A basement is a building story that has at least one -half 
of its floor-to-ceiling height above curb level or the base 
plane. By contrast, a cellar has at least one-half of its 
floor-to-ceiling height below curb level or the base plane. 
A basement is included in floor area calculations. 



Board of Standards and Appeals (BSA) 
The BSA, composed of five commissioners appointed by 
the Mayor, reviews and grants applications for special 
permits, as prescribed in the Zoning Resolution, for 
certain proposed developments and uses. The BSA also 
grants variances for zoning lots with irregular physical 
conditions where construction might not otherwise be 
possible. In addition, the Board hears and decides appeals 
to determinations by the Department of Buildings. 

Bonus (see Incentive Zoning) 

Building* 

A building is a structure that has one or more floors and 
a roof, is permanently affixed to the land and is bounded 
by open areas or the lot lines of a zoning lot. 

An attaclied building* abuts two side lot lines or is 
one of a row of abutting buildings. 

A detaclied building* is a freestanding building that 
does not abut any other building and where all sides 
of the building are surrounded by yards or open areas 
within the zoning lot. 



Bioswale 

A bioswale is a landscape element designed to capture 
storm water run-off from adjacent surface areas. It has 
inverted sloped sides that allow rainwater to drain into 
it and contains vegetation and mulch designed to remove 
pollutants before the water infiltrates into the soil. They 
are required in certain parking lots accessory to commer- 
cial and community facility uses. 

Block* 

A block is a tract of land bounded on all sides by streets or 
by a combination of streets, public parks, railroad rights- 
of-way, pierhead lines or airport boundaries. 

Blockfront 

A blockfront is that portion of a block consisting of all of 
the zoning lots fronting on a single street. 



A semi-detached building* is a building that abuts or 
shares a wall, on a side lot line, with another building on 
an adjoining zoning lot and where the remaining sides of 
the building are surrounded by open areas or street lines. 

A zero lot line building* is a freestanding building 
that abuts one side lot line of a zoning lot and does not 
abut any other building on an adjoining zoning lot. 




' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Building Envelope 

A building envelope is the maximum three-dimensional 
space on a zoning lot within which a structure can be built, as 
permitted by applicable height, setback and yard controls. 




Width 



Building Height 

Building height refers to a building's elevation as 
measured from the curb level or base plane to the roof of 
the building (except for permitted obstructions, such as 
elevator bulkheads). 

Building Segment 

A building segment is a portion of a building where each 
portion has one or more dwelling units served by a sepa- 
rate entrance. For example, a row of attached townhouses 
is comprised of building segments. 

Bulk* 

Bulk regulations are the combination of controls (lot size, 
floor area ratio, lot coverage, open space, yards, height and 
setback) that determine the maximum size and placement 
of a building on a zoning lot. 

Bulkhead 

A bulkhead is an enclosed structure on the roof of a build- 
ing that may include mechanical equipment, water tanks, 
and roof access from interior stairwells. It is not counted 
as floor area and is permitted to exceed zoning height 
and setback requirements, within limits specified in the 
Zoning Resolution. 



Bulkhead Line (see Waterfront Area) 

Cellar* 

A cellar is a level of a building that has at least one-half 
of its floor-to-ceiling height below curb level or the base 
plane. By contrast, a basement has at least one-half of its 
floor-to-ceiling height above curb level or the base plane. 
A cellar is not included in floor area calculations. 

Certification 

A certification is a non-discretionary action taken by the 
City Planning Commission, or its Chairperson, informing 
the Department of Buildings that an as-of-right develop- 
ment has complied w^ith specific conditions set forth in 
accordance with provisions of the Zoning Resolution. 

Certification is also the beginning of the ULURP process 
indicating that the Department of City Planning has 
determined that an application is complete and ready for 
formal public review. 

City Environmental Quality Review (CEQR) 

Pursuant to state law, the City Environmental Quality 
Review (CEQR) process identifies and assesses the 
potential environmental impacts of discretionary actions 
that are proposed by public or private applicants. A 
discretionary action, such as a zoning map amendment, 
cannot begin public review until a "conditional negative 
declaration" or "negative declaration" has been issued, 
stating that no significant environmental impacts have 
been identified or, if any potential impacts have been 
identified, a draft environmental impact statement has 
been completed, evaluating the significance of identified 
impacts and proposing appropriate mitigation. 

A letter "E" designation assigned to a zoning lot indicates a 
site where environmental requirements must be satisfied 
before a building permit may be issued for any develop- 
ment, enlargement or change of use. 

City Map 

The City Map is a collection of maps that show legal 
streets, grades, parks, pierhead and bulkhead lines, public 
places and other legally established map elements. It is 
the official map of New York City and is the base for 
the zoning maps in the Zoning Resolution. The office 
of each borough president contains the city maps for 
that borough. 



* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



City Planning Commission (CPC) 
The City Planning Commission, established in 1936, is a 
13-member panel responsible for the conduct of planning 
relating to the orderly growth and development of the city. 
The Commission meets regularly to hold public hearings 
and review and vote on applications related to the use and 
improvement of land, subject to city regulation and a con- 
sideration of environmental impacts. The Mayor appoints 
the Chairperson, who is also Director of the Department 
of City Planning (DCP), and six other members; each 
Borough President appoints one member and one member 
is appointed by the Public Advocate. The DCP provides 
technical support for the work of the Commission. 

Commercial Building* 

A commercial building is any building occupied only by 
commercial uses, as Usted in Use Groups 5 through 16. 

Commercial District* 

A commercial district, designated by the letter C (Cl-2, 
C3, C4-7, for example), is a zoning district in which com- 
mercial uses are allowed. Residential and community 
facility uses may also be permitted. 

Commercial Overlay 

A commercial overlay is a CI or C2 district mapped within 
residential districts to serve local retail needs (grocery 
stores, dry cleaners, restaurants, for example). Commercial 
overlay districts, designated by the letters Cl-1 through 
Cl-5 and C2-1 through C2-5, are shown on the zoning 
maps as a pattern superimposed on a residential district. 



CI 1 Cl-2 CI 3 CI 4 Cl-5 


V777. ^^lY/z/A s^9^ ;;;;; 


C2 1 C2-2 C2 3 C2 4 C2-5 


V777^. mm. y///> ^m^ <-^y-y-^- 



of a block, commercial overlays extend to the midpoint 
of that block. 

Commercial Use* 

A commercial use is any retail, service or office use listed in 
Use Groups 5 through 16, or allowed by special permit. 

Community District (CD) 

New York City is organized into 59 community districts. 
Each CD is represented by a Community Board, composed 
of volunteer community members appointed by the 
borough president, that assist neighborhood residents 
and advise on neighborhood and citywide planning and 
service issues. 

Community Facility Building* 

A community facility building is any building occupied 
only by a community facility use(s). 

Community Facility Use* 

A community facility use provides educational, health, 
recreational, religious or other essential services for the 
community it serves. Community facility uses are listed 
in Use Groups 3 and 4. 

Contextual Zoning 

Contextual zoning regulates the height and bulk of new 
buildings, their setback from the street line, and their 
width along the street frontage, to produce buildings 
that are consistent with existing neighborhood character. 
Residential and commercial districts with an A, B, D or 
X suffix are contextual zoning districts. 

Conversion* 

A conversion is a change of a building's use to another use. 



Unless otherwise specified on the zoning maps, the depth 
of CI overlay districts, measured from the nearest street, 
is 200 feet for Cl-1 districts, 150 feet for Cl-2, Cl-3, C2-1, 
C2-2 and C2-3 districts, and 100 feet for Cl-4, Cl-5, C2-4 
and C2-5 districts. When mapped on the long dimension 



Court* 

A court is any open area, other than a yard or a portion 
of a yard, which is unobstructed from its lowest level to 
the sky, and is bounded by building walls, or building 
walls and one or more lot lines. 



' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Curb Cut 

A curb cut is an angled cut in the edge of a curb that 
permits vehicular access from a street to a driveway, 
garage, parking lot or loading dock. In residential 
districts, width and spacing rules for curb cuts ensure 
adequate curbside parking. 




Curb Level* 

Curb level is the mean level of the curb adjoining a zon- 
ing lot. In general, it is the basis for building height and 
setback controls in medium- and higher-density non- 
contextual districts and manufacturing districts. 

Density 

Density refers to the maximum number of dwelling units 
permitted on a zoning lot. The factors for each district 
are approximations of average unit size plus allowances 
for any common areas. Special density regulations apply 
to mixed buildings that contain both residential and 
community facility uses. 

Detached Building* (see Building) 

Development* 

A development includes the construction of a new build- 
ing or other structure on a zoning lot, the relocation of an 
existing building to another zoning lot, or the establish- 
ment of a new open use on a tract of land. 



Development Rights 

Development rights generally refer to the maximum 
amount of floor area permissible on a zoning lot. When 
the actual built floor area is less than the maximum per- 
mitted floor area, the difference is referred to as "unused 
development rights." Unused development rights are often 
described as air rights. 

A zoning lot merger is the joining of two or more 
adjacent zoning lots into one new zoning lot. Unused 
development rights may be shifted from one lot to an- 
other, as-of-right, only through a zoning lot merger. 




Zoning Lot Merger 

A transfer of development rights (TDR) allows 
for the transfer of unused development rights from 
one zoning lot to another in limited circumstances, 
usually to promote the preservation of historic build- 
ings, open space or unique cultural resources. For 
such purposes, a TDR may be permitted where the 
transfer could not be accomplished through a zon- 
ing lot merger. In the case of a landmark building, 
for example, a transfer may be made by CPC special 
permit from the zoning lot containing the designated 
landmark to an adjacent zoning lot or one that is 
directly across a street or, for a corner lot, another 
corner lot on the same intersection. 



defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 




Transfer of Development Rights 

Discretionary Action 

A discretionary action requires the review and approval of 
the City Planning Commission or the Board of Standards 
and Appeals. Zoning amendments, special permits, 
authorizations and variances are discretionary actions. 

Dormer 

A dormer is a permitted obstruction within a required 
setback area that may exceed the height of a building. In 
lower-density districts, it is often a window protruding 
from a sloped roof to provide light and air to the top 
floors of homes. In R6 through RIO contextual districts, 
dormers are portions of buildings allowed to penetrate 
a required setback above the maximum base height in 




order to provide variety to the base heights of buildings 
along a street. Both types of dormers are subject to size 
limitations. 

Dwelling Unit* 

A dwelling unit consists of one or more rooms that con- 
tain lawful cooking and sanitary facilities, inhabited by 
one or more persons living together and maintaining a 
common household, in a residential building or residential 
portion of a building. 

Enlargement* 

An enlargement is an addition to an existing building that 
increases the floor area of the building, or an expansion 
of an existing use onto an open portion of a zoning lot 
not previously used for that purpose. 

f 

I 

Enlargement 




After 



Extension* 

An extension is an expansion of the existing floor area 
occupied by an existing use within an existing building. 

Fence 

In residential districts, the maximum height of a fence 
constructed along a front lot line is four feet above 
ground level. The maximum height of a fence along the 
side or rear lot line is six feet. In most instances, fences 
are considered permitted obstructions. 

Floor Area* 

The floor area of a building is the sum of the gross area 
of each floor of the building, excluding mechanical space, 
cellar space, floor space in open balconies, elevators or 
stair bulkheads and, in most zoning districts, floor space 
used for accessory parking that is located less than 23 
feet above curb level. 



' defined in NYC Zoning Raolution 



Floor Area Ratio (FAR) 




The floor area ratio is the principal bulk regulation con- 
trolling the size of buildings. FAR is the ratio of total 
building floor area to the area of its zoning lot. Each 
zoning district has an FAR which, when multiplied by 
the lot area of the zoning lot, produces the maximum 
amount of floor area allowable on that zoning lot. For 



example, on a 10,000 square foot zoning lot in a district 
with a maximum FAR of 1.0, the floor area on the zoning 
lot cannot exceed 10,000 square feet. 

FRESH Food Store* 

A FRESH food store is a full-line grocery store, established 
in underserved neighborhoods through zoning incentives, 
that promotes the sale of fresh food products. 

Front Yard* (see Yard) 

Front Yard Line* 

A front yard line is a line drawn parallel to the front lot 
line at the depth of a required front yard. 

Croup Parl<ing Facility* 

A group parking facility is a building, structure or lot used 
for parking that serves more than one dwelling unit. 

Height Factor* 

The height factor of a building is equal to the total floor 
area of the building divided by its lot coverage (in square 
feet). In general, the height factor is equal to the number 
of stories in a building constructed without setbacks. 

Height Factor Building 

A height factor building is a building containing residences 
whose residential bulk is determined by a complementary 
range of height factors, floor area ratios and open space 
ratios, and is set within a sky exposure plane. Height 
factor regulations promote tall buildings surrounded by 
open space. Height factor buildings are permitted only 
in R6 through R9 non-contextual districts. 

Home Occupation* 

A home occupation is a business operated by the 
occupant(s) of a dwelling unit, which is accessory to the 
residential use. It is generally restricted to no more than 
25 percent of the floor area of the dwelling unit (500 sq ft 
maximum). Occupations that may generate excessive 
noise, odors or pedestrian traffic are not permitted. 

Incentive Zoning 

Incentive zoning provides a bonus, usually in the form of 
additional floor area, in exchange for the provision of a 
public amenity or affordable housing. There are incentive 



defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



bonuses for the provision of public plazas (privately owned 
public spaces), visual or performing arts spaces, subway 
improvements, theater preservation, FRESH food stores 
and affordable housing (Inclusionary Housing Program). 

Indusionary Housing Program 
The Inclusionary Housing Program provides two 
optional floor area incentives in exchange for the creation 
or preservation of affordable housing, on or off-site, pre- 
dominantly for low-income households. 

The original RIO Program provides a floor area bonus 
of up to 20 percent, increasing the maximum FAR of 
10.0 to 12.0 for the provision of affordable housing in 
applicable residential and commercial districts with 
RIO density. 

In Inclusionary Housing designated areas* mapped 
in medium- and high-density residential neighbor- 
hoods and commercial districts with equivalent den- 
sity, a bonus of 33 percent of floor area can be obtained 
for providing 20 percent as affordable housing. The 
base FAR in designated areas is, in most cases, lower 
than the maximum FAR allowed in the same zoning 
district located outside a designated area. 

Infill Housing (see Predominantly Built-up Areas) 

joint Living-Work Quarters for Artists* 

Joint living-work quarters for artists are spaces in non- 
residential buildings used for living quarters and work 
space by artists and tlieir households. 



A large-scale residential development* is a devel- 
opment designed predominantly for residential uses 
in residence districts and in CI, C2, C3 and C4-1 
districts. The development must be on a tract of land 
that is either at least three acres (130,680 sq ft) with 
a minimum of 500 dwelling units or at least 1.5 acres 
(65,340 sq ft) with a minimum of three principal resi- 
dential buildings. Existing buildings may not form any 
part of a large-scale residential development. 

A large-scale community facility development* is a 

development or enlargement predominantly for com- 
munity facility uses in residential districts and in CI, 
C2, C3 and C4-1 districts. The development must be on 
a tract of land that is at least three acres (130,680 sq ft) 
and may include existing buildings. 

Limited Height District* 

A limited height district may be superimposed on an 
area designated as an historic district by the Landmarks 
Preservation Commission. It is mapped in areas of the 
Upper East Side, Gramercy Park, Brooklyn Heights and 
Cobble Hill. The maximum building height is 50 feet in 
a LH-1 district, 60 feet in a LH-IA district, 70 feet in a 
LH-2 district and 100 feet in a LH-3 district. 

Loft 

A loft is a building or space within a building designed for 
commercial or manufacturing use, generally constructed 
prior to 1930. In certain manufacturing districts, lofts may 
be converted to residential use by CPC special permit. 



Large-Scale Development 

A large-scale development is a development generally 
involving several zoning lots planned as a unit. Large- 
scale development regulations allow modifications to 
various zoning regulations, such as the distribution of 
floor area without regard to zoning lot lines, by CPC 
discretionary action. Such modifications can allow for 
design flexibility to achieve a superior site plan. 

A large-scale general development* is a develop- 
ment or enlargement for any uses permitted by the 
underlying district regulations in commercial and 
manufacturing districts. The development must be on 
a tract of land that is at least 1.5 acres (65,340 sq ft) 
and may include existing buildings. 



Lot or Zoning Lot* 

A lot or zoning lot is a tract of land comprising a single 
tax lot or two or more adjacent tax lots within a block. 
An apartment building on a single zoning lot, for example, 
may contain separate condominium units, each occupying 
its own tax lot. Similarly, a building containing a row of 
townhouses may occupy several separate tax lots within 
a single zoning lot, or two or more detached homes on 
one zoning lot may each have its own tax lot. 

The zoning lot is the basic unit for zoning regulations and 
may be subdivided into two or more zoning lots, and two 
or more adjoining zoning lots on the same block may be 
merged, provided that all resulting zoning lots comply 
with applicable regulations. 



* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



A corner lot* is a zoning lot that adjoins the point of 
intersection of two or more streets; it is also a zoning 
lot bounded entirely by streets. 

An interior lot* is any zoning lot that is neither a 
corner lot nor a through lot. 

A through lot* is any zoning lot that connects two 
generally parallel streets and is not a corner lot. 



Through lot 



h- 



Interior lot 



Interior lot 



Corner lot 



Corner lot 



L 



STREET 



Lot Area* 

Lot area is the area (in square feet) of a zoning lot. 

Lot Coverage* 

Lot coverage is that portion of a zoning lot which, when 
viewed from above, is covered by a building. Permitted 
obstructions are not counted towards lot coverage 
calculations. 

Lot Depth* 

Lot depth is the mean horizontal distance between the 
front lot line and rear lot line of a zoning lot. 

Lot Line or Zoning Lot Line* 

A lot line or a zoning lot line is a boundary of a zoning lot. 

A front lot line,* also known as a street line, is that 
portion of a zoning lot line that fronts upon a street. 

A rear lot line* is any lot line that is generally parallel 
to a street line bounding the zoning lot and does not 
intersect a street line. 

A side lot line* is any lot line that is neither a front 
lot line nor a rear lot line. 



Lot Width* 

Lot width is the mean horizontal distance between the 
side lot lines of a zoning lot. 

Lower Density Growth Management Area (LDCMA) * 

A Lower Density Growth Management Area is a desig- 
nated area that is generally distant from mass transit and 
characterized by rapid growth and high auto ownership, 
such as Staten Island or the Throgs Neck area of the Bronx. 
New^ developments must provide more off-street parking, 
larger yards and more open space than would otherwise 
be required in the mapped zoning districts. 

Manhattan Core* 

The Manhattan Core extends from the southern tip of 
Manhattan at The Battery to West 110"' Street on the 
West Side and East 96"" Street on the East Side. It is 
the area covered by Manhattan Community Districts 
1 through 8. 

Manufacturing District* 

A manufacturing district, designated by the letter M 
(Ml-1, M2-2, for example), is a zoning district in which 
manufacturing uses, most commercial uses and some 
community facility uses are permitted. Industrial uses 
are subject to a range of performance standards. New 
residential development is not allowed, except in Ml-D 
districts by CPC authorization. 

Manufacturing Use* 

A manufacturing use is any use listed in Use Group 17 or 
18, or an industrial use only allowed by special permit. 

Mixed Building* 

A mixed building is a building in a commercial district 
used partly for residential use and partly for community 
facility or commercial use. 

When a building contains more than one use, the maxi- 
mum FAR permitted on the zoning lot is the highest FAR 
allowed for any of the uses, provided that the FAR for 
each use does not exceed the maximum FAR permitted 
for that use. In a C1-8A district, for example, where the 
maximum commercial FAR is 2.0 and the maximum 
residential FAR is 7.52, the total permitted FAR for a 
mixed residential/commercial building would be 7.52, 
of which no more than 2.0 FAR may be applied to the 
commercial space. 



* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Mixed Use District* 

A mixed use district is a special purpose district where 
one set of regulations applies to many different areas 
shown on the zoning maps as MX with a numerical suffix 
(MX-8, for example). In MX districts, an Ml district is 
paired with a residential district (M1-2/R6, for example) 
and new residential and non-residential uses are permit- 
ted as-of-right within the same building. In this district, 
a building that contains a residential use and any other 
use is a mixed use building. 

Narrow Street* (see Street) 

Non-complying or Non-compliance* 

A non-complying building is any building that no longer 
complies with one or more of the bulk regulations of the 
applicable zoning district. The degree of non-compliance 
may not be increased. Regulations governing non-com- 
plying buildings can be found in Article V, Chapter 4, of 
the Zoning Resolution. 

Non-conforming or Nonconformity* 

A non-conforming use is any use that no longer conforms 
to one or more of the use regulations of the applicable 
zoning district. The degree of non-conformance may 
not be increased. Regulations governing non-conforming 
uses can be found in Article V, Chapters 2 and 3, of the 
Zoning Resolution. 

Open Space* 

Open space is the part of a residential zoning lot (which 
may include courts or yards) that is open and unob- 
structed from its lowest level to the sky, except for specific 
permitted obstructions, and accessible to and usable by 
all persons occupying dwelling units on the zoning lot. 
Depending upon the district, the amount of required open 
space is determined by the open space ratio, minimum 
yard regulations or by maximum lot coverage. 

Open Space Ratio (OSR)* 

The open space ratio is the amount of open space required 
on a residential zoning lot in non-contextual districts, 
expressed as a percentage of the total floor area on 
the zoning lot. For example, if a building with 20,000 
square feet of floor area has an OSR of 20, 4,000 square 
feet of open space would be required on the zoning lot 
(0.20 X 20,000 sq ft). 



Overlay District 

An overlay district is a district superimposed upon 
another district which supersedes, modifies or supple- 
ments the underlying regulations. Limited height dis- 
tricts and commercial overlay districts are examples of 
overlay districts. 

Paired Districts 

A paired district matches an Ml district with an R3 
through RIO district (M1-5/R10, for example) to permit 
a mixture of residential and non-residential (commercial, 
community facility, light manufacturing) uses in the 
same zoning district, block or building. Paired districts 
are mapped in Special Mixed Use Districts and in the 
Special Long Island City Mixed Use District. 

Parapet 

A parapet is a low wall or protective barrier that extends 
vertically above the roof of a building or other structure. A 
parapet wall that is no higher than four feet is a permitted 
obstruction and may penetrate a maximum height limit 
or required setback area. 

Parking Requirement Category (PRC) 

Parking requirements for commercial uses are grouped into 
nine parking requirement categories based on the compat- 
ibility of the uses and the amount of traffic generated. 



PRC 



B1 
C 



Types of Uses 



Food stores (larger than 2,000 sf)— high traffic 
volume 



Local retail or service uses (bakeries, restaurants, 
department and appliance stores)— high traffic volume 



Offices and stores that sell large items (furniture, 
carpets, appliances)— low traffic volume 



Miscellaneous (court houses, auto showrooms)- 
traffic volume 



-low 



Places of assembly (theaters, bowling alleys, stadiums) - 
high traffic volume 



Outdoor amusement areas— high traffic volume 



Light manufacturing (ceramics, dental products, 
commercial laundries)— moderate traffic volume 



Storage uses (warehouses, trucking terminals)— low 
traffic volume 



Other uses (hotels, funeral parlors, post offices, boat 
rentals) with unique traffic characteristics 



Performance Standard 

A performance standard is a minimum requirement or 
maximum allowable limit on noise, vibration, smoke, 
odor and other effects of industrial uses listed in Use 
Groups 17 and 18. 



' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Perimeter Wall 

Perimeter walls are the outermost walls of a building in 
a lower-density district that enclose floor area and rise 
from the base plane to a specified maximum height. 

Permitted Obstruction 

A permitted obstruction is a structure or object that 
may be located in a required yard or open space or pen- 
etrate a height limit, setback area or sky exposure plane. 
A balcony, trellis, air conditioner, gutter or fence is a 
permitted obstruction in required yards or open space. 
Certain structures on a roof, such as elevator bulkheads, 
water towers or parapets are permitted obstructions 
that may penetrate height limits, setback areas or sky 
exposure planes. 

Pierliead Line (see Waterfront Area) 

Planting Strips 

Planting strips are grassy areas that extend along the edge 
of the curb within which street trees are planted in Rl 
through R5 districts. 

Predominantly Built-up Area* 

A predominantly built-up area is a blockfront entirely 
within an R4 or R5 district (without a suffix) in which 
optional regulations that permit higher floor area ratios 
and lower parking requirements may be used to produce 
infill housing. At least 50 percent of the area of the block 
must be occupied by zoning lots developed with build- 
ings, and the zoning lot that will be developed with infill 
housing may not exceed 1.5 acres (65,340 sq ft). Infill 
regulations may not be used to redevelop a lot occupied 
by a one- or two-family detached or semi-detached house 
unless the blockfront is predominantly developed with 
attached or multifamily housing. 

Private Road* 

A private road is a right-of-way that gives vehicular access 
to developments with five or more dwelling units that are 
located at least 50 feet from a public street in Rl through 
R5 districts. Developments on private roads must comply 
with special design rules. 



In lower density growth management areas, a right-of- 
way that provides access to three or more dwelling units 
is a private road. 

Privately Owned Public Space (POPS) 

A privately owned public space is an amenity provided 
and maintained by the property owner for public use, 
usually in exchange for additional floor area. Located 
mainly in the high-density, central business districts of 
Manhattan, these spaces are typically in the form of an 
arcade or a public plaza with seating and landscaping and 
may be located within or outside a building. 

Public Park* 

A public park is any publicly owned park, playground, 
beach, parkway, or roadway within the jurisdiction and 
control of the New York City Commissioner of Parks 
& Recreation. Typically, public parks are not subject to 
zoning regulations. 

Public Parking Garage* 

A public parking garage is a building or part of a building 
that is used on a daily basis for public parking. A public 
parking garage may include some accessory off-street 
parking spaces for uses on the same zoning lot. 

Public Parking Lot* 

A public parking lot is a tract of land that is used on a 
daily basis for public parking and is not accessory to a 
use on the same or another zoning lot. 

Public Plaza* 

A public plaza is a privately owned open area adjacent to a 
building and accessible to the public. It must generally be 
at the level of the sidewalk it adjoins and be unobstructed 
to the sky except for seating and other permitted ameni- 
ties. In certain high-density zoning districts, a floor area 
bonus is available for the provision of a public plaza. 

Quality Housing* Program 

The Quality Housing Program, mandatory in contextual 
R6 through RIO residence districts and optional in non- 
contextual R6 through RIO districts, encourages develop- 
ment consistent with the character of many established 



defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



neighborhoods. Its bulk regulations set height Hmits 
and allow high lot coverage buildings that are set at or 
near the street line. The Quality Housing Program also 
requires amenities relating to interior space, recreation 
areas and landscaping. 

Railroad or Transit Air Space* 

Railroad or transit air space is space directly over an open 
railroad or transit right-of-way or yard in existence on or 
after September 27, 1962. Development may be permitted 
only by CPC special permit. 

Rear Yard* (see Yard) 

Rear Yard Equivalent (see Yard) 

Residence* 

A residence consists of one or more dwelling units or 
rooming units, and any common areas, including one- 
family and two-family houses, multifamily dwellings or 
apartment hotels. 

A single-family residence* is a building on a zoning 
lot containing one dwelling unit occupied by one 
household. 

A two-family residence* is a building on a zoning 
lot containing two dwelling units occupied by two 
households. In R3-1, R3A, R3X, R4-1 and R4A districts, 
two-family houses, both detached and semi-detached, 
must have at least 75% of one dwelling unit directly 
above or below the other. 

A multifamily residence is a building on a zoning lot 
containing at least three dwelling units. 

Residence District* 

A residence district, designated by the letter R (R3-2, R5, 
RIOA, for example), is a zoning district in which only 
residences and community facilities are permitted. 

Residential District Equivalent 

A residential district equivalent is a residential district 
designation assigned to a CI, C2, C3, C4, C5 or C6 district 
that establishes the regulations for residential develop- 
ment within the district. Any residential development in 
a C4-4 district, for example, must follow the bulk regula- 
tions of its residential equivalent, an R7 district. 



Residential Use* 

A residential use is any use listed in Use Group 1 (single- 
family detached residences) or Use Group 2 (all other 
types of residential development). 

Restrictive Declaration 

A restrictive declaration is a covenant running with the 
land that binds the present and future owners of the prop- 
erty. Restrictive declarations are used to implement the 
conditions of a land use approval or ensure implementation 
of environmental mitigations and project components. 

Rezoning 

A rezoning or remapping occurs when the zoning 
designation(s) for an area is changed on the zoning map 
to facilitate policy initiatives, such as preserving neigh- 
borhoods and promoting economic development around 
transit hubs. A zoning map amendment is subject to the 
ULURP review process. 

Semi-detached Building* (see Building) 

Setback, Building 

A building setback 
is produced when 
the upper floors of a 
building are stepped 
back from loNver 
floors in order to 
provide light and 
air to the street or 
the yards surround- 
ing the building. In 
contextual districts, setbacks of 10 feet on a wide street 
and 15 feet on a narrow street are required as a building 
rises in height before the total height of the building is 
achieved. In non-contextual districts, setbacks may be 
required to ensure that the building does not penetrate 
a sky exposure plane. 

Setbacks, Front Yard or Ground Level 

Front yards are required in Rl through R5 districts; 
rules governing the depth of open areas at ground level 
between the front building wall and the street line apply 




* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



in R6 through RIO districts. Front yards and open areas 
must be planted and have a minimum depth that meets 
the following requirements: 

In R2A, R3A, R3X, R4A, R4-1 and R5A districts, if 
the adjacent front yards are deeper than the minimum 
required front yard, a new building must provide a 
front yard at least as deep as one of the adjacent yards, 
but it need not be deeper than 20 feet. 



In R6B, R7B and R8B districts, the street wall of a new 
building, on any lot up to 50 feet wide, must be as deep 
as one adjacent wall and no deeper than the other. On 
lots wider than 50 feet, the street wall of a new build- 
ing may be no closer to the street line than the street 
wall of an adjacent building. A street wall need not be 
located farther from the street line than 15 feet. 




In R4B, R5B and R5D districts, if the adjacent front 
yards are deeper than the minimum required front yard, 
then the front yard of a new building must be at least 
as deep as one adjacent front yard and no deeper than 
the other, but it need not be deeper than 20 feet. 




In R6A, R7A, 7D and R7X districts, the street wall of 
a new building may be located no closer to the street 
line than the street wall of any building within 150 
feet on the same blockfront, but need not be located 
farther from the street line than 15 feet. 





■ 


! 








+- 



150' 



In R6A, R7A and R7X, the street wall 

of a new building must be no closer 

to the street line than the street wall 

of any building on the same 

blockfront, within 1 50 feet 



defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Shore Public Walkway* (see Waterfront Public 
Access Area) 

Shoreline (see Waterfront Area) 

Side Lot Ribbon* 

A side lot ribbon is an 8 to 10 foot wide strip that extends 
along the length of the side lot line of a zoning lot. It is 
not required to be open to the sky and can extend through 
an attached house set along the side lot line. In R3, R4 
and R5 districts, if a zoning lot is less than 35 feet wide, 
parking must be located in a side lot ribbon. 




Side Yard* (see Yard) 

Sidewalk cafe* 

A sidewalk cafe is a portion of an eating or drinking estab- 
lishment that is located on a public sidewalk. Sidewalk 
cafe regulations are administered by the Department of 
Consumer Affairs. 

An enclosed sidewalk cafe* is a sidewalk cafe that is 
contained within a structure. 

An unenclosed sidewalk cafe* contains readily remov- 
able tables, chairs or railings, with no overhead coverage 
other than umbrellas or a retractable awning. 

A small sidewalk cafe* is an unenclosed sidewalk 
cafe containing no more than a single row of tables 
and chairs in a space no greater than 4'/2 feet from 
the street line, with no barrier between the cafe and 
the sidewalk. 



Sign* 

A sign is any writing — words, pictures or symbols — that 
is on or attached to a building or other structure. 

An accessory sign directs attention to a business, 
profession, commodity, service or entertainment con- 
ducted, sold or offered upon the same zoning lot. 

An advertising sign* directs attention to a business, 
profession, commodity, service or entertainment con- 
ducted, sold or offered on a different zoning lot. 
A flashing sign* is any illuminated sign, whether 
stationary, revolving or rotating, which changes light 
or color. 

An illuminated sign* uses artificial light or reflected 
light from an artificial source. 

Sky Exposure Plane* 

A sky exposure plane is a virtual sloping plane that 
begins at a specified height above the street line and rises 
inward over the zoning lot at a ratio of vertical distance 
to horizontal distance set forth in district regulations. A 
building may not penetrate the sky exposure plane which 
is designed to provide light and air at street level, primar- 
ily in medium- and higher-density districts. 




Sliver Building 

A tall building or enlargement that is 45 feet wide or less, 
in an R7-2, R7X, R8, R9 or RIO district, is commonly 
called a sliver building. Such buildings are generally 
restricted to a height equal to the width of the abutting 
street or 100 feet, whichever is less. 



* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Special Permit 

A special permit is a discretionary action by the City 
Planning Commission (CPC), subject to ULURP review, 
or the Board of Standards and Appeals (BSA), which may 
modify use, bulk or parking regulations if certain condi- 
tions and findings specified in the Zoning Resolution 
are met. Applications for special permits under CPC 
jurisdiction generally concern use or bulk modifications 
with potential for greater land use impacts than those 
reviewed by the BSA. 

Special Purpose District 

The regulations for special purpose districts are designed 
to supplement and modify the underlying zoning in order 
to respond to distinctive neighborhoods with particular 
issues and goals. Special purpose districts are shown as 
overlays on the zoning maps and are in Articles VIII-XIII 
of the Resolution. 



Story* 

A story is that part of a building between the surface of 
one floor and the ceiling immediately above. A cellar does 
not count as a story. 

Street* 

A street is any road (other than a private road), highway, 
parkway, avenue, alley or other way shown on the City 
Map, or a way at least 50 feet wide and intended for 
public use which connects a way shown on the City 
Map to another such way or to a building or structure. A 
street refers to the entire public right-of-way (including 
public sidewalks). 

A narrow street* is a street that is less than 75 feet 

wide. 

A wide street* is a street that is 75 feet or more in 

width. Most bulk regulations applicable to wide streets 

are also applicable to buildings on intersecting streets 

within 100 feet of a wide street. 



Split Lot 

A split lot is a zoning lot located in two or more zoning 
districts and divided by a zoning district boundary. In 
most cases. Zoning regulations for each district must 
be applied separately for each portion of the lot. Special 
rules for zoning lots that existed prior to 1961, or prior to 
any rezoning that splits a lot, can be found in Article VII, 
Chapter 7, of the Zoning Resolution. 



C1-9 



50' 



25' 



R8B 




25 Foot Rule 

The 25 foot rule applies to an existing zoning lot split 
between two or more zoning districts that permit 
different uses or have different bulk rules (Cl-9 and 
R8B, for example). When the width of one district 
measures 25 feet or less at every point, the use and 
bulk regulations of the larger district can be applied 
to the entire zoning lot. 



Street Line* 

A street line is a front lot line separating the zoning lot 
from the street. 

Street Wall* 

A street wall is a wall or portion of a wall of a building 
facing a street. 

Supplemental Public Access Area* (see Waterfront 
Public Access Area) 

Tax Lot 

A tax lot is a parcel of land identified with a unique bor- 
ough, block and lot number for property tax purposes. 
A zoning lot comprises one or more adjacent tax lots 
within a block. 

Tower 

A tower is a portion of a building that penetrates the sky 
exposure plane and is allowed only in specified high- 
density areas of the city. A tower may be occupied by 
residential, commercial or community facility uses. 
The standard tower rules generally permit the tower 
portion of a building to cover no more than 40 per- 
cent of the area of the zoning lot, or up to 50 percent 
on lots smaller than 20,000 square feet. The tower 
portion of a building must be set back at least 10 feet 
from a wide street and at least 15 feet from a narrow 
street. These regulations arc modified for different 
uses and districts. 



■ defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



A tower-on-a-base requires a contextual base be- 
tween 60 and 85 feet high that extends continuously 
along the street line. The height of the tower is con- 
trolled by a minimum lot coverage requirement and 
a rule that at least 55 percent of the floor area on the 
zoning lot be located below a height of 150 feet. On 
a wide street in R9 and RIO districts and their CI or 
C2 equivalents, a building that includes a residential 
tower must comply with tower-on-a-base regulations 
in addition to the standard tower rules. 

Transfer of Development Rights 
(see Development Rights) 

Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP) 

The Uniform Land Use Review Procedure is the public 
review process, mandated by the City Charter, for all pro- 
posed zoning map amendments, special permits and other 
actions such as site selections and acquisitions for city 
capital projects and disposition of city property. ULURP 
sets forth a time frame and other requirements for public 
participation at the Community Board, Borough Board 
and Borough President levels, and for the public hearings 
and determinations of the Community Boards, Borough 
Presidents, City Planning Commission (CPC) and City 
Council. Zoning text amendments follow a similar review 
process, but without a time limit for CPC review. (See 
page 126 for a diagram of the ULURP process.) 

Upland Connection* (see Waterfront Public 
Access Area) 

Use* 

A use is any activity, occupation, business or operation, 
listed in Use Groups 1 through 18, or identified in a special 
permit, which is conducted in a building or on a tract of 
land. Certain uses are allowed only by special permit of 
the CPC or BSA. 

Use Croup 

Uses that have similar functional characteristics and/or 
nuisance impacts and are generally compatible with each 
other are listed in one or more of 18 groups that are cat- 
egorized as residential uses (Use Groups 1-2), community 
facility uses (Use Groups 3-4), retail and service uses 
(Use Groups 5-9), regional commercial centers/amuse- 
ment uses (Use Groups 10-12), waterfront/recreation 
uses (Use Groups 13-15), heavy automotive uses (Use 
Group 16) and industrial uses (Use Groups 17-18). Use 



group charts can be found in Chapter 2 of Articles II, III 
and IV of the Zoning Resolution. 

Variance 

A variance is a discretionary action by the Board of 
Standards and Appeals which grants relief from the use 
and bulk provisions of the Zoning Resolution to the 
extent necessary to permit a reasonable or practical use 
of the land. A variance may be granted, after a public 
hearing, when unique conditions on a specific parcel of 
land would cause the property owner practical difficulty 
and undue hardship if it were developed pursuant to 
applicable provisions. 

Waterfront Access Plan (WAP) 

A waterfront access plan is a detailed framework set forth 
in the Zoning Resolution, that tailors waterfront bulk 
regulations and public access rec]uirements to the specific 
conditions of a particular waterfront. Development of 
individual waterfront parcels governed by the plan trig- 
gers a requirement to build and maintain public access 
areas in accordance with the WAP. 

Waterfront Area* 

A waterfront area is the geographical area adjacent to a 
body of water at least 100 feet wide, comprising all blocks 
between the pierhead line and a parallel line 800 feet land- 
ward from the shoreline. Blocks within the waterfront 
area are subject to waterfront zoning regulations. 




i Bulkhead 5 1 ( Shoreline 
s, line J 

Pierhead line 



' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



The bulkhead line is a line shown on the zoning 
maps which divides the upland and seaward portions 
of waterfront zoning lots. 

The pierhead line is a line shown on the zoning maps 
which defines the outermost seaward boundary of the 
area regulated by the Zoning Resolution. 

The shoreline* is the mean high water line. 

A waterfront block,* waterfront public park* or 

waterfront zoning lot* is a block, public park or 
zoning lot in the waterfront area that is adjacent to 
or intersected by the shoreline. 

Waterfront Public Access Area* 

A waterfront public access area (WPAA) is the portion of 
a waterfront zoning lot where publicly accessible open 
space is provided to and along the shoreline. All WPAAs 
are required to be improved with landscaping and trees, 
seating and other amenities. WPAAs can include a shore 
public walkway, an upland connection, a supplemental 
public access area, a public access area on a pier or floating 
structure, or any additional area improved for public use. 
The minimum amount of waterfront public access area 
required is a specified percentage for the zoning lot. 




A shore public walkway is a linear public access area 
running alongside the shore. 

An upland connection* is a pedestrian way between a 
public place (a street, a sidewalk or a park, for example) 
and a shore public walkway. Upland connections may 
be provided along a private road. 



A supplemental public access area* is a pubUc access 
area required in order to fulfill the minimum percent- 
age of WPAA required on a waterfront zoning lot, 
once a shore public walkway and upland connection 
have been provided. 

Waterfront Yard* 

A waterfront yard is the portion of a waterfront zoning 
lot extending along the entire length of the shoreline 
which must be open and unobstructed from the lowest 
level to the sky, except for certain permitted obstructions. 
Depending upon the zoning district, the minimum depth 
is typically 30 to 40 feet. Shore public walkways are 
required to be located within the waterfront yard. 

Wide Street* (see Street) 

Window, Legally Required* 

Legally required windows are mandated in dwelling units 
to provide necessary light, air and ventilation. Legally 
required windows cannot be located on or closer than 
30 feet to a lot line. 

Yard* 

A yard is a required open area along the lot lines of a zon- 
ing lot which must be unobstructed from the lowest level 
to the sky, except for certain permitted obstructions. Yard 
regulations ensure light and air between structures. 

A front yard* extends along the full width of a front 
lot line. In the case of a corner lot, any yard extending 
along the full length of a street line is considered a front 
yard, (see also Setbacks, Front Yard or Ground Level) 

A rear yard* extends for the full width of a rear lot line. 
In residential districts, the minimum depth of a rear 
yard is 30 feet, except in R2X districts. In commercial, 
manufacturing and R2X districts, the minimum depth 
of a rear yard is 20 feet. A corner lot is not required 
to have a rear yard. 

In commercial and manufacturing districts, and 
for some community facility buildings in residence 
districts, the rear yard may be occupied entirely by a 
single-story building up to a height of 23 feet. 

A rear yard equivalent* is an open area on a through 
lot required to comply with rear yard regulations. 



* defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



A side yard* extends along a side lot line from the 
required front yard, or from the front lot line if no 
front yard is required, to the required rear yard, or 
to the rear lot line if no rear yard is required. In the 
case of a corner lot, any yard that is not a front yard 
is considered a side yard. 

Zero Lot Line Building* (see Building) 

Zoning District 

A zoning district is a residential, commercial or manufac- 
turing area of the city within which zoning regulations 
govern land use and building bulk. Special purpose zoning 
districts have distinctive qualities where regulations are 
tailored to the neighborhood. Zoning districts are shown 
on the zoning maps. 

Zoning Lot* (see Lot) 

Zoning Lot Merger (see Development Rights) 

Zoning Maps* 

The 126 New York City zoning maps indicate the loca- 
tion and boundaries of zoning districts and are part of 
the Zoning Resolution. Each map covers a land area of 
approximately 8,000 feet (north/south) by 12,500 feet 
(east/west). Zoning map amendments, or rezonings, are 
subject to ULURP review. 



' defined in NYC Zoning Resolution 



Notes